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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *úsí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cow, bull
Russian meaning: корова, бык
Old Japanese: usi
Middle Japanese: úsí
Tokyo: ùshi
Kyoto: úshí
Kagoshima: úshi
Comments: JLTT 564.
japet.dbf-prnum,japet.dbf-meaning,japet.dbf-rusmean,japet.dbf-ajp,japet.dbf-mjp,japet.dbf-tok,japet.dbf-kyo,japet.dbf-kag,japet.dbf-comments,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *úsu ( ~ o-, -i)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: animal; cow
Russian meaning: животное; корова
Tungus-Manchu: *us-
Korean: *sjó
Japanese: *úsí
Comments: An Eastern isogloss. Korean has a frequent initial vowel reduction.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *us-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 herd, flock 2 game, wild animal
Russian meaning: 1 стадо, стая 2 дикое животное
Evenki: usuŋa 1
Even: ụsụ 1
Ulcha: uselte 2
Orok: uselte 2
Nanai: uselte 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 292.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sjó
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cow
Russian meaning: корова
Modern Korean: so
Middle Korean: sjó
Comments: Nam 311, KED 968.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *úsí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: cow, bull
Russian meaning: корова, бык
Old Japanese: usi
Middle Japanese: úsí
Tokyo: ùshi
Kyoto: úshí
Kagoshima: úshi
Comments: JLTT 564.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔomsV
Meaning: meat
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *mēms-
Altaic: *úsu ( ~ o-, -i) [or to *waCV?]
Uralic: *onśa? (*omśa (Setälä JSFOu 30, 57); in UEW under *oća]
Dravidian: *ūn[c] ??
Eskimo-Aleut: *mimci ~ *miŋci (*p-) ?
References: МССНЯ 350, ОСНЯ 1, 252-253; ND 45 *[ʔ]omśa 'flesh, meat'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *mems-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: meat, flesh
Tokharian: B mīsa 'meat, flesh' (Adams 464)
Old Indian: māṁs-, mās-, māṁsá- n. `flesh, meat'
Armenian: mis, gen. msoy `Fleisch'
Old Greek: mē̂niŋks, - iŋgos f. `Haut, Häutchen, bes. Hirnhaut'; mēró-s, pl. mērói̯/mē̂ra m. `der obere fleischige Teil des Schenkels, Schenkelbein'
Slavic: *mę̄̀so; *mę̄zdrā́
Baltic: *meñs-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *mimz-á- n.
Latin: membrum, -ī n. `Körperglied; Glied, Teil'; membrāna f. `dünne, zarte Haut, Häutchen'
Celtic: OIr mīr `Bissen'
Albanian: miš Fleisch
Russ. meaning: мясо
References: WP II 262
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: мя́со,
Near etymology: мн. мяса́ "ляжки у охотничьих собак", укр. м᾽я́со, мня́со, ст.-слав. мѩсо σάρξ, κρέας (Супр.), болг. месо́ (Младенов 295), сербохорв. ме̑со, мн. ме́са, словен. mеsо̣̑, чеш. mаsо, слвц. mäso, польск. mięso, в.-луж. mjaso, н.-луж. mjeso, полаб. mąsǘ.
Further etymology: Родственно др.-прусск. mensā "мясо", др.-инд. māṃsám ср. р. "мясо", лтш. mìesa "живое тело", гот. mimz "мясо", алб. mish наряду с др.-инд. mās-, арм. mis; см. И. Шмидт, KZ 26, 16; Бернекер 2, 43 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 178 и сл.; М.--Э. 2, 654 и сл.; Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 221; Г. Майер, Alb. Wb. 280; Хюбшман 474; Торп 310; Педерсен, IF 5, 56; Мейе--Вайан 31; Мейе, РФВ 48, 199; Миккола, ВВ 22, 242. Далее см. мяздра́. Нет оснований говорить о гот. происхождении, вопреки Хирту (РВВ 23, 335; Idg. Akzent 140); см. Кипарский 74.
Pages: 3,30-31
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *meñs-ā̂ f.
Meaning: flesh
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: meisà žem. (< *mensā) `Fleisch'; lit. mēsà
Lettish: mìesa `ungeteiltes, lebendiges Fleisch des Körpers; Fleisch (in biblischem Sinne)', pl. 'Leib, Körper'
Old Prussian: mensā `Fleisch' Ench. passim, menso V. 154, 374
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *mimzá-n
Meaning: flesh
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: mimz n. (a) `meat'; CrimGot menus
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1276
Root: mēmso-, mē(m)s-ro-
English meaning: flesh
German meaning: `Fleisch'
Grammatical comments: n. kons. St. mēs n. (aus *mēms)
Material: Ai. māṁsá- n. `Fleisch', māṁs-pacana- `Fleisch kochend'; mā́s n. `Fleisch';

    arm. mis, Gen. msoy `Fleisch';

    gr. μη̃νιγξ `Haut, Fleischhaut, Hirnhaut' (*mēsno- oder *mēmsno-); μηρός `Schenkelstück', μηροί `einzelne Schenkelstücke', μη̃ρα, μηρία `die ausgeschnittenen Schenkelknochen' (μηρός = air. mīr, idg. *(m)s-ro-);

    alb. mish `Fleisch' (zunächst aus *minsa);

    lat. membrum `Glied' (*mēms-ro- `fleischiges'), membrāna `dünne, zarte Haut';

    air. mīr `Bissen' (`*Stück Fleisch'; = μηρός);

    got. mimz n. `Fleisch';

    apr. mensā `Fleisch', lett. mìesa ds.; lit. žem. meisa, lit. mėsà ds. (slav Lw.?);

    abg. męso `Fleisch'; slav. *męzdra in russ.-ksl. męzdrica `Haut des Eies', russ. mjazdrá (*memzdhrā) `Fleischseite des Fells' usw.; wahrscheinlich auch klr. ḿáznúty `dick werden', ḿaz `Muskel; Beleibtheit, Masse' usw.;

    toch. В misa n. Pl. `Fleisch'.

References: WP. II 262, WH. II 64 f., Trautmann 178 f., Specht Idg. Dekl. 50.
Pages: 725
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 680
Proto: *onśa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: flesh; hind
Finnish: osa [see *oća]
Estonian: osa [see *oća]
Saam (Lapp): oaž'že [see *oća]
Udmurt (Votyak): *ūnć
Hungarian: ágyek
Sammalahti's version: *ons'a; vgl. UEW 657, 832
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-udm,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ū-
Meaning : flesh, meat
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ū-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ū-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ū-
Meaning : flesh
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ū
Tamil meaning : flesh, meat
Tamil derivates : ūn_ flesh, meat, muscle, body
Malayalam : ūppu
Malayalam meaning : flesh
Malayalam derivates : ūn gums, roots of nails
Proto-Nilgiri :
Number in DED : 0728
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri :
Meaning : gums
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ū
Number in DED : 728
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ū-
Meaning : flesh
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ū-ŋ-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ū-ju (pl. *ūŋa)
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ū-ŋ-
Meaning : flesh, meat
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Manda : ūŋge
Number in DED : 728
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ū-ju (pl. *ūŋa)
Meaning : meat, flesh
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : ūju (pl. ūnga) "flesh, meat, fleshy part of fruit"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : ūyū (pl. ūnga)
Kuwi (Schulze) : ūnga
Sunkarametta Kuwi : ūyu (pl. ūŋga)
Parja Kuwi : ūyu (pl. ūŋga)
Number in DED : 728
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *mimci ~ *miŋci (*p-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: dried fish
Russian meaning: сушеная рыба
Proto-Yupik: *miŋci- (~ *p-)
Proto-Inupik: *pipci (~ *m-)
Comments: The variant with the voiceless anlaut stop is due to assimilation before a following voiceless stop in the beginning of the second syllable.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 262
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *miŋci- (~ *p-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: dried fish
Russian Meaning: сушеная рыба
Chugach (AAY): PWS miŋciq
Nunivak (Peripheral): piŋciχ 'half-dried dolly warden'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 262
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-chug,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *pịpcị (~ *m-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: dried fish 1, dried meat 2
Russian meaning: сушеная рыба 1, сушеное мясо 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: pipsiʁaq 1
SPI Dialects: W pivsi* 2
North Alaskan Inupik: pipsi 1
NAI Dialects: B pivsi*, pipsi* 2
Western Canadian Inupik: pipsi 1
WCI Dialects: Cor fiffi* 1, M pipsi* 2
Eastern Canadian Inupik: pitsik 1
ECI Dialects: Lab pipsi [Peck] 1, pipse* [Jen.] 1
Greenlandic Inupik: missi, nissi (mivse*, nivse*), [Fab.] mipse*, mivse*, nipse*, [Jen.] mivse*, nivse* 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 262
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-ecis,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVMCV
Meaning : meat
Eurasiatic : *ʔomśV
Sino-Caucasian : *jǝ̄mcō
Amerind (misc.) : *mati (actually *maCi) 'meat' (R 469); *ʔici 'fish' (R 273) ? [+ A K]
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-yàmà, *-nyámá 'meat'; Ijo na_ma_ 'animal, meat'.
Reference : ND 45 (IE, Ur. and adding an Arabic and an Eg. form).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *Hɨmcṓ
Meaning: bull; beef
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *jǝ̄mcō
Sino-Tibetan: *chu ( ~ -ū, -ō̆, -ăw)
Yenisseian: *ʔise
Comments and references : HGC 28, NSC 54 *jVmcV. Length of initial vowel not clear (PY points rather to short).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *jǝ̄mcō
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bull, ox
Proto-Nakh: *jētt
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔumco
Proto-Tsezian: *ʔõs: B
Proto-Lak: nic
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔunc
Proto-Lezghian: *jamc
Proto-Khinalug: lac
Proto-West Caucasian: *c:ʷǝ
Notes: One of the most common and widely accepted NC roots. See Trombetti 1923, Trubetzkoy 1930, 276, Яковлев 1941, Балкаров 1969, Шагиров 1977, Abdokov 1983. Correspondences are fully regular (except only the initial l- in Khin., which has probably appeared under the influence of lix 'ox' and läq 'calf'). We must note, however, that the usual Nakh material compared with this root is not PN *jētt 'cow', but PN *psṭu 'ox, bull' which can not be related to this root phonetically (the reduction of the syllable *jǝ̄- can not be explained in any way) and goes back to another PNC root (*ćwijo 'man, male' q.v.). On the other hand, PN *jētt is a perfect phonetic match for *jǝ̄mcō (if we take into account the absolute regularity of the phonetic process *-mC- > *-tt- in PN).

    The comparison of this root with PK *wać- 'ram' (Климов 1965) is not very persuasive for semantic reasons. Perhaps, some traces of this root in Kartvelian (as a loanword, possibly from Tsez. languages) may be seen in Georg. dial. aš, iš, išo 'addressing an ox, bull', išia 'bull-calf'(a term of endearment) (see Kavtaradze 1972).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *jētt
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cow
Chechen: jett
Ingush: jett
Batsbi: jett
Comments: Obl. base *ʕātti-, cf. Chech. ätta-, Ing. erg. ʕatto, Bcb. atti-. 6th class in Chech., Ing., 4th class in Bacb.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔumco
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ox
Avar: oc
Chadakolob:
Andian language: unso
Akhvakh: ũča
Chamalal: musa
Tindi: musa
Karata: unsa
Botlikh: unsa
Bagvalal: unsa
Godoberi: unsa
Comments: Av. paradigm B (ocó-l, ocá-l, Chad. ošó-l, uš-bí). Cf. also Bagv. Tlond. musa, Akhv. Tseg., Tlan. ʕunča. The Cham., Tind. and Bagv. (Tlond.) forms with metathesized nasal prove that it had been *-m- (not *-n-) in PA.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʔõs: B
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ox
Tsezi: is
Ginukh: üš
Khvarshi: ĩs
Inkhokvari: ẽs
Bezhta: õs
Gunzib: õs
Comments: PTsKh *ʔö̃s (cf. also Tsez. /Imnaishvili/ is/os, Gin. /MSU/ ); PGB *ʔõs.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: nic
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ox
Lak form: nic
Comments: Gen. nica-l. Cf. also Khosr. nic, nica-l.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʔunc
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 ox 2 bull
Akusha: unc 1,2
Chiragh: unc 1
Comments: Cf. also Ur., Tsud. unc, Kub. us id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *jamc
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ox
Lezghian: jac
Tabasaran: jic
Agul: bec
Rutul: jas
Tsakhur: jac
Archi: ans
Udi: us
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. jac, Ag. Bursh. jacʷ, Fit. wic, Burk. wec. The original medial nasal *-m- is preserved (as -n- before a sibilant) only in Arch. All other languages have lost it, but Agul has preserved the compensatory labialisation (Proto-Ag. *jawc; in Rich. bec regularly < *wec, cf. the forms in other dialects). All correspondences are regular (including the fronting *a > e in Rich. and Burk. before a hissing affricate, and the development *ja- > *ji- in a closed syllable in Tab.).

    The obl. base can be reconstructed as *jamca- (cf. Rut. jasa-, Tsakh. jaca-, Arch. erg. ansa); 3d class in all class-distinguishing languages.

    See Лексика 1971, 149; Гигинейшвили 1977, 82.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: lac
North Caucasian etymology: 1106
Meaning: cow
Khinalug form: lac
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *c:ʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ox, bull
Abkhaz: á-ć̌
Abaza: čʷǝ
Adyghe: cʷǝ
Kabardian:
Ubykh: cʷǝ
Comments: PAT *cʷǝ; PAK *c:ʷǝ. Cf. also Ub. def. á-cʷ.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *chu ( ~ -aw, -ew)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cow, bull
Tibetan: mʒo mongrel-breed of the yak-bull and common cow.
Kachin: dumsu1, su2- cow, bull.
Comments: Abor śo cow; Trung dzu1 yak. Cf. also Burm. sǝwh ram, LB *[z]ǝw(x) ?
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔise
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: meat
Ket: īś 'meat, fish'
Yug: īs 'meat, fish'
Kottish: īči, pl. īčaŋ; асс. ič (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл., Ф.), iči (Кл.) "meat"; койб. (Ф.) is id.
Arin: is (М., Сл., Срсл., Кл.), iži (Лоск.) "meat"
Comments: ССЕ 194. Werner 1, 396 <*hitǝ / *itǝ > *ičǝ> (??). The reconstruction of *-t- cannot be justified, and the reconstruction of *h- here is based only on the Pump. form hite, gite 'fish' - which is no doubt a reflex of PY *c[ī]k 'fish' q.v.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

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