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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *nĕ́ŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: female relative (sister or brother's wife)
Russian meaning: родственница (сестра или жена брата)
Turkic: *jeŋe
Mongolian: *nagaču
Tungus-Manchu: *neŋu-
Korean: *nù'ɨ̀i
Comments: EAS 76; TMN 4, 207 ("kaum annehmbar... Lallwort").
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jeŋe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: elder brother's wife
Russian meaning: жена старшего брата
Old Turkic: jeŋge (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jeŋge (MK)
Turkish: jeŋge
Tatar: ǯiŋgɛ
Middle Turkic: jeŋge (Pav. C.), jinge (AH)
Uighur: jeŋge
Sary-Yughur: jeŋge, jiŋge, iŋge
Azerbaidzhan: jeŋgä
Turkmen: jeŋŋe
Khakassian: nige
Shor: neŋe
Oyrat: jeŋe, d́eŋe
Halaj: neŋe
Yakut: saŋas
Dolgan: haŋas
Tuva: čeŋge
Kirghiz: ǯeŋe
Kazakh: žeŋge
Noghai: jeŋge
Bashkir: jeŋge
Karakalpak: žeŋge
Salar: jeŋGo, jeŋko, jaŋgu
Comments: EDT 950, VEWT 197-8, ЭСТЯ 4, 189-190, Лексика 313, Stachowski 96.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *nagaču
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: maternal relative
Russian meaning: родственник со стороны матери
Written Mongolian: naɣaču (L 556)
Middle Mongolian: naxačü(i) 'uncle (mother's brother)' (HY 28)
Khalkha: nagac
Buriat: nagsa, nagasxaj
Kalmuck: naɣǝc (КРС)
Ordos: naGa, naGan, naGǟ, naGači
Dagur: naučō, nagču (Тод. Даг. 155), nauči, naučō (MD 195)
Shary-Yoghur: naGačǝ
Monguor: naGǝ̄ (SM 254), naGai
Comments: MGCD 497. Mong. > Manchu nakču (see Rozycki 161).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *neŋu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sweetheart 2 younger (brother, sister)
Russian meaning: 1 возлюбленная 2 младший (сестра, брат)
Even: neŋńe 1
Negidal: neŋuj (L.-Amg.) 2
Spoken Manchu: nun 'younger sister; husband's younger sister; younger woman' (904,914)
Literary Manchu: non 2
Jurchen: nexun (nexun-un) 'younger sister' (291)
Oroch: neŋu 2
Udighe: neŋu 2
Comments: ТМС 1 618, 622. The Jurch. word may reflect a contamination with PTM *neku- 'younger relative' (v. sub *nĕ̀ko).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nù'ɨ̀i
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: (boy's) sister
Russian meaning: сестра (мальчика)
Modern Korean: nui
Middle Korean: nù'ɨ̀i
Comments: Nam 115, KED 358.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ńVnV
Meaning: female in-law
Indo-European: *i̯enǝ-ter-
Altaic: *néŋu
Uralic: *niŋä
Dravidian: *nānd_-
References: МССНЯ 361, ОСНЯ 2, 81-82; ND 1607 *ńi/eŋHV 'woman'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(e)yena-t-er-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: brother's wife
Old Indian: yātar- f. `a husband's brother's wife'
Armenian: ner, nēr, gen. niri `die Frauen von Brüdfern od. desselben Mannes'
Old Greek: pl. ẹ̄natéres, -érōn, sing. enátēr (sp. kleinasiat. Inschr.), voc. ẹ̄náter, gen. -teros (Hdn.) `Ehefrau des Mannesbruders'
Slavic: *ję̄trɨ̄, gen. -ъve
Baltic: *jen̂tē̃ (-er-es) (1?) f.
Latin: ianitrīcēs pl., gen. -um f. `die Ehefrauen von Brüdern'
Russ. meaning: жена брата
References: WP I 207 f, Buck 126.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: я́тровь
Near etymology: ж. "свояченица, жена брата мужа", укр. ятрíвка, ятро́ва, блр. ятро́ўка, русск.-цслав. ятры, род. п. ятръве, сербск.-цслав. ıетры, болг. етъ́рва, сербохорв. jетр̑ва, словен. jȇtrva, др.-чеш. jatrvenicě, jatrusě "uхоr fratris mariti", др.-польск. jątry, jątrew (см. Брюкнер, Jagić-Festschrift 139; AfslPh, 11, 131; РF 5, 419), польск. jątrew, род. п. jątrwi. Др. ступень чередования представлена в утро́вка "свояченица", [в бывш.] Лужск. у. и Петергофск. у. (Булич, ИОРЯС 1, 331).
Further etymology: Праслав. *jętry, род. п. *jętrъve, родственно лит. jéntė, род. п. jenters, jentės, вост.-лит. intė (Ширвид), "жена брата мужа", лтш. ìеtеrе, iẽtal̨a -- то же, др.-инд. уā́tā "жена брата мужа", греч. ἐνάτηρ, гомер. мн. ч. εἰνατέρες, фриг. вин. п. ἰανατέρα, лат. ianitrīcēs мн. ч. "жены братьев". Форма jętrу представляет собой результат влияния svekry (см. свекро́вь); см. Мейе, Ét. 268; ВSL 24, 160; В. Шульце, Qu. ер. 157; Мейе -- Эрну 543; Бернекер I, 456; Траутман, ВSW 107 и сл.; Шпехт 88; М.--Э. 2, 81; Вальде--Гофм. I, 668.
Trubachev's comments: [См. еще Трубачев, Терм. родства, стр. 137--138. -- Т.]
Pages: 4,569
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *jen̂tē̃ (-er-es) (1?) f.
Meaning: brother's wife
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: jentē, gen. -ers, ostlit. intē `Frau des Bruders des Mannes'
Lettish: ìetere, iẽtal̨a (+ "kur." jentere) `Frau des Bruders des Mannes'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 780
Root: i̯énǝter-, schwache Kasus enǝtr- (i̯n̥̄tr-)
English meaning: husband's brother's wife
German meaning: `die Frau des Bruders des Gatten'
Material: Ai. yā́tar- ds. (Akzent der starken + Vokalismus der schwachen Kasus);

    arm. ner, richtiger nēr, Gen. niri `die Frauen von Brüdern oder desselben Mannes' (zur Grundf. Vermutungen bei Hübschmann Arm. Gr. I 478; Bugge IF. 1, 445, 449, Meillet BSL. 30, CR. 90, zuletzt Cuny Recherches 66 f.);

    phryg. Akk. ιανατερα;

    gr. ἐνάτηρ `die Frau des Bruders des Gatten' (ion. Psilose), Hom. εἰνατέρες, -έρων (εἰ- Ausdruck der metr. Dehnung für ἐν-), inschr. (kleinas.-gr.) ἐνατρί;

    lat. janitrīcēs (Erweiterung von *ianiter nach dem Fem. der Nomina agentis auf -īc-) `die Ehefrauen von Brüdern' (das i stammt von *ianiter);

    alit. *jéntė, -ers ds. (gentė, žentė durch Kreuzung mit gentìs `Verwandter', žéntas `Schwiegersohn'), lett. ìetere, iẽtal'a und kurisch jentere ds.;

    aksl. *jętry (Ausgang nach svekry), russ.-ksl. jatry ds., serb. jêtrva ds.

References: WP. I 207 f., WH. I 668, Trautmann 107 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 568.
Pages: 505-506
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 605
Proto: *niŋä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: woman, female
German meaning: Frau, Weib, Weibchen
Saam (Lapp): njiŋŋalâs ~ njiŋŋĕlâs -ss-, -s- (N) 'female animal, a female', niŋŋēlis, njiŋŋēlis, njinnjēlis, njunnjēlis (L) 'Tierweibchen', ńiññelas, ńeññelas (T), ńiñløs (Kld.) 'zum weiblichen Geschlechte gehörend'
Mordovian: ńi (E) 'Frau, Weib, Gattin'
Komi (Zyrian): ńin (ćeri) (Vm.) 'женская особь семги' ?
Khanty (Ostyak): ni (V), neŋ (DN), niŋ (ō) 'Weib'
Mansi (Vogul): nī (TJ), nē (KU P SO) 'Weib, Frau; Weibchen'
Hungarian: nő (Px3Sg. neje) 'Frau, Weib, Ehefrau; (altung.) Weibchen'
Nenets (Yurak): ńe (O) 'Weib, Frau', voc. ńeŋe
Enets (Yen): nǟ (Ch.) 'Frau, Weib'
Nganasan (Tawgi): nē 'Weib, Eheweib'
Selkup: neä (Čl.) 'Frau', neu (Ča.) 'meine Frau', näl-gum (Ta.), näije-gum, näi-gum, näie-gom (Ke.), näl-gop (N) 'Weib'
Kamass: nē, ne 'Weib, Frau'
Janhunen's version: Cf. (94) *näxi
Sammalahti's version: Cf. *näxi
Addenda: Koib. нэ; Mot. нэ-газы̆
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-janh,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *nānd_-
Meaning : female relative
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *and-il (*-nd_-)
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *nānd_-
Proto-North Dravidian : *nāsg-
Notes : Tamil nāttan_ār, etc.? The lack of nasal in PKG is unclear; maybe it is due to a reinterpretation of the root as *n-ānd_- with *n- being a possessive prefix.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,dravet-notes,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *and-il (*-nd_-)
Meaning : elder brother's wife
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : andil, tandil
Number in DED : 3644
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *nānd_-
Meaning : sister-in-law
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : nānr_a
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *nānǯ-aṛ
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *nānǯ-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : nānr_a
Meaning: wife's younger sister
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 3644
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *nānǯ-aṛ
Meaning : wife's younger sister
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Manda : nānjaṛ
Number in DED : 3644
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *nānǯ-
Meaning : sister-in-law
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : nānja "younger sister-in-law"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : nanjo
Kuwi (Israel) : nānjo "wife's younger sister"
Number in DED : 3644
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *nāsg-
Meaning : elder brother's wife
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : nāsgo
Number in DED : 3644
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-dednum,

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