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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *tilV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: tongue; voice
Russian meaning: язык; голос
Turkic: *dɨl / *dil
Tungus-Manchu: *dilga-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 284, Мудрак Дисс. 38, 70, Лексика 228. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *dɨl / *dil
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: tongue; language
Russian meaning: язык
Old Turkic: tɨl (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tɨl (MK, KB)
Turkish: dil
Tatar: tel
Middle Turkic: til (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: til
Uighur: til
Sary-Yughur: dɨl
Azerbaidzhan: dil
Turkmen: dil
Khakassian: tǝl
Shor: til
Oyrat: til
Halaj: til
Chuvash: čǝlɣe; čǝlǝx 'пищик в гармошке'
Yakut: tɨl
Dolgan: tɨl
Tuva: dɨl
Tofalar: dɨl, tɨl
Kirghiz: til
Kazakh: til
Noghai: til
Bashkir: tel
Balkar: til
Gagauz: diĺ
Karaim: tɨl, til
Karakalpak: til
Salar: cil
Kumyk: til
Comments: VEWT 478, EDT 489-90, ЭСТЯ 3, 228-229, Егоров 323, Лексика 227, Stachowski 237.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *dilga-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: voice
Russian meaning: голос
Evenki: dilgan
Even: dịlgъ̣n
Negidal: dịlga-n
Spoken Manchu: ǯilǝhan (42)
Literary Manchu: ǯilGan
Ulcha: dịlǯa(n)
Orok: ǯịlda(n)
Nanai: ǯịlGã
Oroch: digga(n)
Udighe: digana- 'speak'
Solon: dilgã
Comments: ТМС 1, 206. Without the suffixed *-ga(n) cf. Evk. dila-mkūn, Neg. dịlamkụn 'high, thin (voice)'.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *tilV(ŋV)
Meaning: tongue
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *dleng'hu̯-
Altaic: *tilV
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *jilǝ 'tongue'
References: Cf. Austric: PAA *liajh, PAN *dilaq 'tongue'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ig'hu-, *ing'hu- (*dl-, *g'h-, *d-, *t-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: tongue
Tokharian: A käntu, B kantwo `Zunge' (PT *käntwo) (Adams 139)
Old Indian: jihvá- m., jihvā́- f., juhū́- f. `tongue'
Avestan: hizvā, hizū, hizvah- 'Zunge'
Armenian: lezu, gen. lezui; lizu (seit 10. Jh.) `Zunge'
Slavic: *ję̄zɨ̄kъ
Baltic: *leĩǯuw-i-s, *inǯuw-i-s
Germanic: *tung-ōn- f.
Latin: lingua, OLat dingua f. `Zunge; Sprache; Landzunge', demin. lingula
Celtic: OIr tenge; Cymr tafod, MCymr tafawt, OCorn tauot, MCorn taves, tavas, MBret teaut, NBret teod `Zunge' (cf. Ir ligur `Zunge')
Albanian: gjúhë, pl. -ë f. 'tongue, speech)'
Russ. meaning: язык
References: WP I 792 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: язы́к,
Near etymology: род. п. -а́, мн. языки́, нередко с семинаристским ударением язы́ки, диал. лязы́к "язык", новгор., белозерск. (где л- -- от лиза́ть), язычо́к, укр. язи́к, блр. язы́к, др.-русск. ıазыкъ, ст.-слав. ѩзыкъ γλώσσα, ἔθνος (Остром., Клоц., Супр.), болг. ези́к, сербохорв. jѐзик, род. п. мн. jе̏зи̑ка̑, диал. jа̀зик, словен. jézik, чеш., слвц. jazyk, польск. język, в.-луж. jazyk, н.-луж. jězyk, полаб. jǫzek.
Further etymology: Праслав. *językъ -- расширение на -kо- типа kamykъ : kamy от *języ-, которое родственно др.-прусск. insuwis "язык", лит. liežùvis (где l- от liẽžti "лизать"), др.-лат. dingua, лат. linguа (под влиянием lingō "лижу"), гот. tuggô "язык", д.-в.-н. zunga, тохар. А käntu "язык" из *tänku-, и.-е. *dn̥ǵhū-; см. И. Шмидт, Kritik 77; Бецценбергер, GGA, 1896, 951 и сл.; ВВ 3, 135; Мейе, Ét. 335; Бернекер I, 270; Траутман, ВSW 104; Арr. Sprd. 347; Шпехт, KZ 62, 255 и сл. Затруднительно фонетически отношение к др.-инд. jihvā́ "язык", juhū́ (ж.) -- то же, авест. hizvā, hizū- -- то же; см. Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 101; Вальде--Гофм. I, 806 сл. Здесь предполагали действие языкового табу. Ст.-слав., цслав. знач. "народ" представляет собой, возм., кальку лат. linguа "народ", которое представлено во франц. Languedoc -- название области в Южной Франции; см. Мейе -- Вайан 515. Любопытно др.-русск. языкъ "переводчик, лазутчик" (напр., в I Соф. летоп. под 1342 г., Сказ. Мам. поб., 3 ред.; см. Шамбинаго, ПМ 56 и др.; Срезн.).
Trubachev's comments: [См. еще Якобсон, IJSLP, I/2, 1959, стр. 277; Мартине, "Word", 12, 1956, стр. 3. Сюда же относит Пизани (IF, 61, 1954, стр. 141 и сл.) и греч. γλῶσσα, γλῶττα, ион. γλάσσα "язык". -- Т.]
Pages: 4,550-551
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *leĩǯuw-i-s, *inǯuw-i-s
Meaning: tongue
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: liežùvi-s `Zunge; Sprache'
Old Prussian: insuwis `Zunge' V. 94
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *tungōn
Meaning: tongue
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: tuŋgō f. (n) `tongue'
Old Norse: tunga f. `Zunge'
Norwegian: tunga
Swedish: tunga
Danish: tunge
Old English: tunge, -an f. `tongue'
English: tongue
Old Frisian: tunge
Old Saxon: tunga f.
Middle Dutch: tonghe, tunghe f.
Dutch: tong f.
Old Franconian: tunga
Middle Low German: tunge, tonge
Old High German: zunga f. `Zunge, Rede, Sprache'
Middle High German: zunge wk./st. f. 'zunge; die sprache, der sprechende mensch'
German: Zunge f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 361
Root: dn̥ĝhū, dn̥ĝhu̯ā
English meaning: tongue
German meaning: `Zunge'
General comments: oft durch Anlautswechsel und Umstellungen umgestaltet
Material: Ai. jihvā́ f., av. hizvā ds. (vorar. *ĝiĝhu̯ā aus *daĝhu̯ā mit i von lih- `lecken' oder von jih- `abwärts wenden'; iran. *sizvā wohl durch Sonorendissimilation); daneben ū-Stamm in ai. juhū́ f. `Zunge, Löffel' (mit u nach juhṓti `ins Feuer gießen', anders Wackernagel-Debrunner III 192), av. hizū m. ds.; mit -ōn- für -ā apers. hizbāna-, mpers. huzvān ds., nordar. biśān m. `Zunge, Rede' (*viźhvān nach E. Leumann Nordar. Spr. 127 f.);

    arm. lezu, Gen. lezvi setzt im Ausgang das -ghu̯ā von *dn̥ghu̯ā fort, die erste Silbe wohl von leiĝh- `lecken' beeinflußt;

    alat. dingua, lat. lingua (mit l- von lingere); osk. fangvam (Vetter Serta Hoffilleriana 153;

    air. teng (ā-Stamm) und tengae, Gen. tengad mit t- nach tongid `schwört'; aber air. ligur `Zunge' zu lat. ligurriō; unklar ist mcymr. tafawt, cymr. tafod, acorn. tauot, mbret. teaut, bret. teod, wozu corn. tava, mbret. taffhaff, bret. tan̄va `kosten' (kelt. *tamāto-?);

    got. tuggō f., an. as. tunga, ags. tunge, ahd. zunga, mit -ōn- statt ; als Ablautneubildung vielleicht hierher anord. tangi `Griffstück der Klinge', mnd. tange `Sandrücken zwischen zwei Sümpfen';

    bsl. inžū- m. in apr. insuwis; lit. liežùvis (nach liẽžti `lecken'); aksl. języ-kъ, skr. jèzik, poln. język, russ. jazýk; zum Schwund des anlaut. d- s. J. Schmidt, Krit. 77;

    toch. A käntu, Gen. käntwis, B käntwo, Obl. käntwa sa (*kantwa, umgestellt aus *tankwa, idg. *dn̥ĝhu̯ā).

References: WP. I 1792, WH. I 806 f., Trautmann 104, Specht Dekl. 83, Havers Sprachtabu 123 f.
Pages: 223
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVLV
Meaning : tongue
Eurasiatic : *tilV(ŋV)
Sino-Caucasian : ? *Hƛɨ́lV
Austric : *dilaʔ tongue, lick
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *Hƛɨ́lV̄
Meaning: jaw; gills
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *Hƛ_ǝlV (~-ŏ-)
Yenisseian: *jiĺ- (~x-, ʔ-)
Basque: *bi=der̄
Comments and references : 6th tone in PY contradicts tenseness in PNC, but may be just a misrecording. [Bur. tal 'palate' <> Skr. tālu- id.?]
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *Hƛ_ǝlV (~-ŏ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mouth; jaw
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔirƛ:V
Proto-Lezghian: *ƛ:al
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Not very widely spread, but phonetically and semantically quite plausible.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔirƛ:V
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: jaw
Chamalal: erƛ:ʷ
Tindi: erƛ:i
Godoberi: eluƛ:a
Comments: Cf. also Cham. Gig. erƛi.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ƛ:al
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mouth
Rutul: ɣal
Tsakhur: ɣal
Comment: 4th class in Rut. and Tsakh. Obl. stem *ƛ:olV- (cf. Rut. ɣɨli-). Phonetically coincides with PL *ƛ:al 'bark, shell' (q.v.), although such a semantic shift is hard to explain.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *jiĺ- (~x-, ʔ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: gills
Yug: iĺej6, pl. iĺejǝŋ5
Comments: ССЕ 233. Werner 1, 360.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *bi=der̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: chin
Low Navarrese: (Amikuse) bidar
Zuberoan: bíder
Comments: Some have thought this northeastern word to be a phonetic variant of *bisar̄ ‘beard’ (q.v.), but this is impossible phonetically: ZBR has bízar ‘beard’ opposed to bíder ‘chin’. *bi=rder̄ dissimilated > *bi=der̄; cf. *a=rdar̄ > *a=dar̄ ‘horn’ (q.v.).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bnv,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *lVk-X, *dVlVk-x
Meaning: tongue
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *liah (?cf. also *lǝ-tāk tongue)
Austroasiatic meaning: lick
Munda parallels: M. lʔe lick
Proto-Austronesian: *dilaq
Austronesian meaning: tongue
Austronesian code: 7:16
Proto-Thai: lia.A to lick
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-mun,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *liah
Meaning: lick
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: lia.A to lick
Proto-Katuic: EK *liah
Proto-Bahnaric: BAH liah
Khasi: ʒliah to lick
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-khasi,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *liah
Meaning: to lick
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-East Katuic: *liah
References: P-288
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *liah
Meaning: lick
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: liah.T
Pakoh meaning: to lick
Lao Katu: lia < TAI
Lao Katu meaning: to lick
Katu dialects (3): lieh
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,ekatet-hkv,

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