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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ʎ́ʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Abkhaz: a-mšǝ́n
Ubykh: šʷa
Comments: PAK *xǝ. The Abkh. form contains a locative suffix -n(ǝ); m(ǝ)- is obviously a prefix here, but its precise meaning is not clear. The correspondence PAT *š : PAK *x : Ub. šʷ points to PWC *ʎ́ʷ.

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *järʎwī / *ʎwä(j)rī ( ~ -ē)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Proto-Nakh: *for-d ( ~-ṭ)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *riʎo
Proto-Lak: x:iri
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔurx:ʷi
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʎ́ʷǝ
Notes: An interesting common NC geographical term. The PN form contains a suffixed *-d (with a precise parallel in Av. raʎád).

    The PWC form is incorrectly compared by Trubetzkoy (1922,242;1930) with PEC *x_ä̆nɦɨ̆'water' q.v. Also rejected should be Yakovlev's (1941) comparison of WC forms with Georg. χewi 'ravine with a mountain stream'. A correct comparison see in Dumézil 1933, 50, Abdokov 1983, 101.


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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *for-d ( ~-ṭ)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Chechen: hord
Ingush: ford
Comments: 6th class in both languages. Abayev (1,485-486) thinks that the Nakh forms are borrowed from Ossetian (fūrd / ford 'big river, sea'). But the Ossetian word has no Iranian or IE etymology (see Abayev ibid.), whereas the NC etymology of the Nakh word ( = Av. raʎád etc.) is quite clear - therefore it is obvious that the Ossetian word is borrowed from Nakh.

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *riʎo
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Avar: raʎád
Chadakolob: ratád
Andian language: reʎo
Akhvakh: raʎa
Chamalal: jeʎa
Tindi: reʎa
Karata: reʎa
Botlikh: reha
Bagvalal: raha
Godoberi: reʎa
Comments: Av. paradigm B (raʎdá-l, raʎáda-l; Chad. ratádu-l, ratáda-l). Cf. also Cham. Gig. reʎa, Bagv. Tlond. relha. Av. > Inkh., Tsez., Gin., Bezht., Gunz. raʎad 'sea'. Arch. ʎat (erg. ʎet:e) 'sea' is also most probably an old loan from Avar, although loss of ra- is not quite clear (perhaps the early loanword first changed regularly into *daʎat:, and then with reduction changed to *ƛat: > *ʎat:).

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: x:iri
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Lak form: x:iri
Comments: Cf. Khosr. x:iri id.

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʔurx:ʷi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sea
Akusha: urxu
Chiragh: urx:u
Comments: Cf. also Tsud., Muir., Sirg. urx:u id.

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *järʎwī́
Meaning: pool, sea
North Caucasian: *järʎwī / *ʎwä(j)rī ( ~ -ē)
Sino-Tibetan: *ƛăj
Yenisseian: ? Yug. ullej5, pl. uláŋńiŋ `wave'
Burushaski: *dalá ?
Comments and references : [Cf. also PNC *ƛErV 1713 `river, rivulet', perhaps also Bur. Hun. tul, Nag. tur `canal' - or a separate root? - cf. *talV]

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ƛăj
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: pool
Chinese: *Łaj pool, pond; moat.
Lushai: li a quiet, deep pool.

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Chinese characters :

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Modern (Beijing) reading: chí
Preclassic Old Chinese: Łaj
Classic Old Chinese: Łaj
Western Han Chinese: laj
Eastern Han Chinese: źe
Early Postclassic Chinese: źe
Middle Postclassic Chinese: źe
Late Postclassic Chinese: źe
Middle Chinese: ḍe
English meaning : pond, pool, moat
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пруд; водоем; городской ров с водой; 2) банка для электробатареи; 3) ямка, лунка
Comments: Regular Sino-Viet. is trì. Unaspirated *Ł- is witnessed by Min reflexes: Xiamen, Chaozhou ti2, Fuzhou tie2, Jianou ti9 and must be reconstructed in this case (although normally *Ł- > MC j- in this position). The character is also used in the die-sheng 差池 *shraj-Łaj 'be uneven'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 85
Four-angle index: 7263
Karlgren code: 0004 t-u
Vietnamese reading: d_ìa
Shijing occurrences: 28.1

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 287
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
MC description : 止開三平支澄
ZIHUI: 3069 0473
Beijing: c̣hî_ 12
Jinan: c̣hî_ 12
Xi'an: c̣hî_ 12
Taiyuan: chi_ 1
Hankou: chi_ 12
Chengdu: chi_ 12
Yangzhou: chi_ 12
Suzhou: zü 12
Wenzhou: ʒei 12
Changsha: c̣î_ 12
Shuangfeng: ʒ̣î_ 12
Nanchang: chi_ 12
Meixian: chi_ 12
Guangzhou: čhi 12
Xiamen: ti 12
Chaozhou: ti 12
Fuzhou: tie 12
Shanghai: zi_ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: čhi 12

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *dalá
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: large irrigation canal
Yasin: dalá(h)
Hunza: dalá
Nagar: dalá
Comments: Sh. dalá, daljá

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