Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Tsezian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tsezian: *=ɨχ:ɔlV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Tsezi: =eχora
Ginukh: =oχoru
Khvarshi: =eχʷla
Inkhokvari: =ɨχala
Bezhta: =iχalo
Gunzib: =ɨχǝlu
Comments: PTsKh *=ɨχolV, PGB *=ɨχVlu.

Search within this database

North Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North Caucasian: *HāχuɫV / *HālχV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Proto-Nakh: *=ʕāχ-(in)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iχ:Vl-
Proto-Tsezian: *=ɨχ:ɔlV-
Proto-Lak: halχ:a-
Proto-Dargwa: *χ:ʷala-
Proto-Lezghian: *[hI]alχä-
Proto-Khinalug: wiχä
Proto-West Caucasian: *ŁʷA
Notes: For the phonetic development in PWC cf. *χ_ɦwĕje 'dog' (in this case the lateralisation in PWC may also have been favoured by the lateral resonant in the root).

    The stem *HālχV (reflected in PN, Lak., PL and Khin. /with a former class prefix w-/) is a secondary development < *HāχɫV < *HāχuɫV. Several morphological notes: the stem is usually accompanied by class prefixes in the Western area (Nakh, Andian, Tsezian) but is prefixless in Eastern Daghestan (Lak., Darg., Lezghian). By now it is hard to judge which situation is original; however, it seems probable that the initial syllable *Hā- is historically a prefix, and that we should reconstruct the most archaic form as *χuɫV (cf. the rather frequent reflex of this stem in different areas: in Av. /χ:alá-ta-/, in PD /*χ:ʷala-/, in some Lezg. languages/Rut. χuläχ-dɨ, Tsakh. χɨli-na/. Cf. also Hurr. χel(-)di 'lofty, highborn' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 54-55).

    See Абдоков 1983, 147.


Search within this database

Nakh etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Nakh: *=ʕāχ-(in)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Chechen: =ēχ-a
Ingush: =ʕäχ-a
Batsbi: =aχχ-ẽ
Comments: Cf. also Shar. =ʕēχĩ, Cheb. =āχẽ, Khild. =ʕēχe etc. The geminated -χχ- in Bacb. is obviously expressive. The pure root *ʕāχ- is present in Chech. =aχ-dan "to lengthen", Bacb. =aχ-dar id.

Search within this database

Avar-Andian etymology :

Search within this database
Protoform: *=iχ:Vl-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Avar: χ:alá-ta-b
Chadakolob: χalá-da-b
Andian language: =eχ:ula
Akhvakh: =aχ:a-da
Chamalal: =eχ:ila-b
Tindi: =eχ:ala-b
Karata: =eχ:ela-b
Botlikh: =eχ:ila
Bagvalal: =eχ:ela-
Godoberi: =eχ:ila
Comments: In some languages (Akhv., Av.) the root is supplied with a dental adjectival suffix (Akhv. -aχ:a-da < *-aχ:al-da). The second root vowel is impossible to reconstruct (because of its weak unstressed position).

Search within this database

Lak etymology :

Search within this database
Lak root: halχ:a-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tall, high
Lak form: halχ:a-s:a

Search within this database

Dargwa etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dargwa: *χ:ʷala-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: big
Akusha: χala-l
Chiragh: χ:ʷala-ze
Comments: Cf. also Ur. χʷala-, Sirg. χʷala-, Kait. χula- etc. The labialisation in this case is obviously secondary (probably reflecting the former class prefix).

Search within this database

Lezghian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Lezghian: *[hI]alχä-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 long 2 up, on top
Lezghian: jarʁi 1
Tabasaran: jarχi 1
Agul: jarχIe-f 1
Rutul: χuläχ-dɨ 1
Tsakhur: χɨli-na 1
Budukh: laχa 2
Archi: lāχa 1
Udi: laχo 2
Comment: Within PL there is a difficult interrelation between four roots: *[hI]alχä- 'long', *hI[a]χV- 'high', *jaq:V 'high' and *ʔarχ:(Vl)- 'far' q.v. In several languages contaminations have arisen. Thus, -ʁ- in Lezg. jarʁi 'long' is obviously due to contamination with jarʁal 'far'.

    Several languages reflect metathesized forms (*[hI]alχä- ~ *laχä- ~ *χalä- and, with Ablaut, *χolä-), which is usual for verbal/adjectival stems. Note that all these variants are not merely Lezgian, but have external parallels as well.


Search within this database

Khinalug etymology :

Search within this database
Khinalug root: wiχä
North Caucasian etymology: 66
Meaning: long
Khinalug form: wiχä

Search within this database

Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-West-Caucasian: *ŁʷA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Abkhaz: a-wǝ́
Adyghe: č̣́ǝ-ħa
Kabardian: č̣́ǝ-ħ
Ubykh: wa
Comments: PAT *wǝ; PAK *ḳǝ-ħÁ. In the first part of the AK compound we may possibly see PAK *ḳǝ- 'grow' (unlike Shagirov 2, 135 we wouldn't like to split PAK *ḳač̣́ǝ́ 'short' and find in it's first part the same component; see the etymology of this word). The second component, *ħA, is strangely enough, related by Shagirov (ibid.) to PAK *ħA 'bring, carry'. We would still like to follow Trubetzkoy in connecting the AK and Ub. forms (the ħ:w correspondence is here just the same as in the word for "dog"). However, PAT should have regularly had l-, not w- here; perhaps we should assume that PWC *Łʷ was for some reason split into l and w in PAT (position before different vowels? - there are too few examples to come to a definite conclusion).

    In Ub. wa can be also discovered in the word for far (ʎa-wá lit. 'long for feet').


Search within this database

Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *χwVɫV́
Meaning: long, far
North Caucasian: *HāχuɫV / *HālχV
Sino-Tibetan: *(K-)lu
Basque: *heuga[l]i / *heu[l]agi
Comments and references : (differently in WFR 32).

Search within this database

Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *lu
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long, far
Chinese: *lhu far away.
Burmese: lu disproportionately tall.
Kachin: gǝlu2 long.
Kiranti: *lV- (?)
Comments: BG: Garo ro, Dimasa galau, lau-ba. Ben. 64; Mat. 170.

Search within this database

Chinese characters :

Search within this database
Modern (Beijing) reading: yōu
Preclassic Old Chinese: lhu
Classic Old Chinese: lhu
Western Han Chinese: lhǝw
Eastern Han Chinese: zhǝw
Early Postclassic Chinese: zhiw
Middle Postclassic Chinese: zhǝw
Late Postclassic Chinese: zhǝw
Middle Chinese: jǝw
English meaning : be far away, distant, long-trailing; longing, persistent
Russian meaning[s]: 1) забота, печаль; опечаленный; быть расстроенным; 2) далекий, отдаленный; долгий; вечный; 3) рвануть; с силой тряхнуть
Shuowen gloss: 憂也.從心.攸聲.
Comments: One of the cases of irregular (dialectal) development of OC *lh- > MC j- (normally zjǝw would be expected). Modern dialects almost uniformly point to an aspirated (voiceless) initial, cf. Xiamen, Chaozhou, Fuzhou iu1, Meixian jiu1, Mand. yōu.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 61
Four-angle index: 8476
Karlgren code: 1077 c
Shijing occurrences: 1.2, 30.2, 33.3, 39.4_, 54.1_

Search within this database

Chinese Dialects :

Search within this database
Number: 1159
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
MC description : 流開三平尤以
ZIHUI: 1890 1612
Beijing: iou 11
Jinan: iou 11
Xi'an: iou 11
Taiyuan: iou 1
Hankou: iou 11
Chengdu: iǝu 11
Yangzhou: iôɨ 11
Suzhou: iöy 11
Changsha: iôu 11
Shuangfeng: iû 11
Nanchang: iu 11
Meixian: jiu 11
Guangzhou: jau 12
Xiamen: iu 11
Chaozhou: iu 11
Fuzhou: ieu 11
Shanghai: iɨ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: iou 12

Search within this database

Kiranti etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kiranti: *lV- (?)
Meaning: long
Sunwar: lay-š-šā

Search within this database

Basque etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Basque: *heuga[l]i / *heu[l]agi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 abundant 2 to increase, multiply
Bizkaian: ugari 1, ugal-du 2
Gipuzkoan: ugari 1, ugal-du 2
High Navarrese: ugari 1
Lapurdian: heuragi 1 (Leizarraga)
Zuberoan: heuregi 1 (Oihenart)
Comments: Note the metathesized variants in PNC *HāχuɫV / *HālχV as well as in Bsq.

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov