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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *[χ]ɔbɔ A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 leg 2 foot
Ginukh: hobo 1
Bezhta: χäbä 2
Comments: One should expect ʁ- in Bezht.; reasons for devoicing are not clear.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *GĕbV (~ *ʁ-, -w-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: foot
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʁabu (~-o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *[χ]ɔbɔ A
Notes: An Av.-And.-Tsez. isogloss.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʁabu (~-o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: foot
Chamalal: ʁab
Comments: Cf. also Gad., Gig. ʁabu id. Isolated within Andian, but having probable Tsezian parallels.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-chm,aandet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xGĕbV
Meaning: leg
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *GĕbV (~ *ʁ-, -w-)
Sino-Tibetan: [*k(h)ap]
Yenisseian: *qoʔp (~χ-,-ɔ-)
Comments and references : In PST cf. also *g[ū]p 'knee'. Somewhat differently in HGC 24, NSC 57.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: [*k(h)ap]
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: fork of legs
Lushai: kap fork of legs.
Comments: Dimasa ya-khāp id. Sh. 47; Ben. 73. Cf. PAA *kVp 'fork', Thai gap 'forking (of a tree)'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *qoʔp (~χ-,-ɔ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: part of leg
Ket: qɔpku6, pl. -n5 'calves of legs'; Werner 2, 110: qɔ́pqu
Yug: χɔʔp, pl. χɔfɨn 'sole'
Pumpokol: hep ( = χep) 'trousers' (Сл)
Comments: ССЕ 261. In HGC 24 the Ket and Yug forms are separated; but phonetically they are quite identical (the component -ku or -qu in Ket is unclear, though). The relationship to *qobǯV 'palm of hand' is not quite clear, although the latter may have influenced the meaning in Yug.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVPV
Meaning : hoof
Eurasiatic : *ḳäṗV
Afroasiatic : *ʕaḳ(V)b- ~ *ḳaʕab- (also *q̇ʷap- 138; Dolg. also takes all the words belonging to *ka/u(n)p-2320)
Sino-Caucasian : *xGĕ́bV
Reference : МССНЯ 344; ND 1108.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳäṗV
Meaning: hoof
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *k'Ap- (-ph-)
Altaic: *ki̯òp`e (~k`-,-e-u,-a-u)
Uralic: *käppä
References: МССНЯ 344, ОСНЯ 1, 347; ND 1108 *Ḳaṗ[ä] 'palm, sole; hoof' (for a reason of his own separating IE forms into 1123 *ḲEP_VzV 'paw, hoof' - together with Arab. ʔaqfaz ???).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k'Ap- (-ph-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: hoof (of perissodactyles)
Old Indian: śaphá- m. `hoof'
Avestan: safa- m. 'Huf des Pferdes'
Slavic: *kopɨ̄to `копыто (нераздвоенное)'
Baltic: ? *kanā̂p-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *xṓf-a- m.
Russ. meaning: копыто (нераздвоенное)
References: WP I 346
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: копы́то,
Near etymology: укр. копи́то, болг. копи́то, сербохорв ко̀пито, словен. kорítо, чеш., слвц. kоруtо, польск., в.-луж., н.-луж. kоруtо.
Further etymology: От копа́ть, ср. польск. kорас́ "копать, рыть; пинать, бить копытом"; см. Бернекер 1, 565 и сл.; Траутман, Germ. Lautges. 54; иначе у Шпехта (85). Др.-исл. hófr, д.-в.-н. huof "копыто" скорее связано с др.-инд. c̨aphás, авест. sаfа- "копыто"; напротив, др.-русск. копысати "лягаться" следует отнести к копыто; ср. Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 301.
Pages: 2,320
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kanā̂p-ā̂ f.
Meaning: hoof
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: kanṓpa 'Pferdehuf'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xṓfa-z
Meaning: hoof
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hōf-r m. `Huf'
Norwegian: hov
Swedish: hov
Danish: hov
Old English: { hōf }
English: hoof
Old Frisian: hōf
Old Saxon: hōf
Middle Dutch: hoef
Dutch: hoef m.
Middle Low German: hōf
Old High German: huof (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: huof (-v-) st. m. 'huf'
German: Huf m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 844
Root: kā̆pho- oder k̂ō̆pho-
English meaning: hoof
German meaning: `Huf'
Material: Ai. śaphá- m. `Huf, Klaue', av. safa- m. `Huf des Pferdes';

    aisl. hōfr, ags. hōf, ahd. huof `Huf'.

References: WP. I 346, Specht Idg. Dekl. 253.
Pages: 530
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯àp`ù ( ~ k`-, -e-u, -a-u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hoof, heel
Russian meaning: копыто, пятка
Mongolian: *kajir-
Korean: *kúp
Japanese: *kupi-(mpi)su
Comments: Whitman 1985, 182, 226 (Kor.-Jpn.). Cf. Chag. (VEWT 281) kopuk 'eine vorteilhafte (stehende) Stellung des Knöchels beim Spiel'. In TM cf. *kōkčān 'hoof' (ТМС 1, 405-406) - perhaps < *kōpčān, cf. Evk. Tott. kopčan.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kajir-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hit with a hoof
Russian meaning: бить копытом
Written Mongolian: qajir- (L 913: qaira-)
Middle Mongolian: qaji- (SH) 'to tread'
Khalkha: xajr-
Buriat: xajra-
Kalmuck: xǟr-
Ordos: xǟr-
Comments: KW 180.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kúp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hoof
Russian meaning: копыто
Modern Korean: kup
Middle Korean: kúp
Comments: Liu 90, KED 220.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kupi-(mpi)su
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: heel
Russian meaning: пятка
Old Japanese: kupjipjisu
Middle Japanese: kúbísù, kúfísù
Tokyo: kùbisu, kìbisu
Kyoto: kúbìsù
Kagoshima: kubísu
Comments: JLTT 461. Original accent is not quite clear: Kyoto points rather to LLL, Tokyo and Kagoshima - to HHH, while RJ has an exceptional type HHL: this is all probably due to the elision of a medial syllable.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1299
Proto: *käppä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: paw; hand
German meaning: Pfote; Hand
Finnish: käppä 'hand, tass; Hand, Pfote'
Estonian: kapp (Gen. käpä) 'Klaue, Pfote, Hand'
Mordovian: kepe (E), käpä (M) (Adj., Adv.) 'barfuß'
K. Redei's notes: Das mord. Wort dürfte ursprünglich ein Substantiv gewesen sein. Die adjektivische und adverbiale Bedeutung ist sekundär, vgl. mord. E jalgo, M jalga 'zu Fuß'~ finn. jalka 'Fuß'. Ung. hüvelyk 'Daumen', ostj. V köwǝl 'das Fell von den Pfoten der Pelztiere' und tscher. KB kawal 'Ferse' (Wichmann: FUF 11:205) gehören aus lautlichen Gründen nicht in diesen Zusammenhang. Das ostj. Wort s. unter *küps3 (*käpsä) 'Fell von den Pfoten, Beinen der (Pelz-) Tiere' FU. Das tscher. Wort kann wegen des a der ersten Silbe und wegen des inlautenden w nicht hier eingeordnet werden. Läpp. N gœeppel 'seal's flipper' (Wichmann: a.a.O) ist ein finn. Lehnwort (s. SKES unter kapala).
References: Paasonen, MordChr. 76; Wichmann: FUF 11:205; Kalima: MSFOu. 44:65, 145; Toivonen: FUF 22:141, 30:340; Mägiste: NyK 50:261; E. Itkonen: FUF 29:320; Saareste: UAJb. 28:204; SKES.
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,uralet-redei,uralet-lit,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʕaḳ(V)b- ~ *ḳaʕab- (?)
Meaning: hoof, sole
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʕaḳ(V)b- 'heel'
Central Chadic: *kaHab- 'hoof'
Notes: Scarce data.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-cch,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 2002
Proto-Semitic: *ʕaḳib-/*ʕiḳb-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: heel
Akkadian: eḳbu OB on [CAD e 248], [AHw 231]
Ugaritic: ʕḳb 'jarrete, calcañar' [DLU 86]
Hebrew: ʕāḳēb [KB 872].

    Cf. PB ʕāḳēb [Ja 1104], ʕăḳubbā [ibid. 1105] 'haunch, posteriors' with a meaning shift

Aramaic: OFF ʕḳb 'heel ?' [HJ 881] (in mn ʕḳb 'immediately')
Judaic Aramaic: ʕiḳb_ā, ʕăḳēbā (also 'curve, end') [Ja 1104], ʕăḳībā [ibid. 1105]; ʕḳyb, ʕaḳbā 'end, heel' [Sok 416]
Syrian Aramaic: ʕeḳb_ā 'calx, ungula' [Brock 541]
Modern Aramaic: MLH ʕaḳbo.

    In the phrase rišo ʕaḳbo saym 'er hat (alles) den Kopf gestellt' [J Mlah 165]; NASS ịḳbɔ 'heel' [Tser 0158]

Mandaic Aramaic: ʕaḳba [DM 356]
Arabic: ʕaḳib-, ʕaḳb- [BK 2 308-309]
Tigre: ʕǝḳǝb 'foot, leg' [LH 468]
Harari: (?) ḳūb [LHar 121]
Notes: Note that HAR ḳūb 'heel' [LHar 121] is considered by Leslau an Arabism (<*ʔaḳub <*ʕaḳub); Leslau gives no other ETH examples, probably considering their absence an argument for the Arabic origin of the HAR word. See, however, TGR, which is rather an inherited term than an Arabism in view of the meaning difference.

    Very likely derived from this nominal root are such diverse verbal or secondary deverbal forms as AMOR ʕḳb 'to watch, to protect' [CAAA 15]; UGR ʕḳb (basic stem) 'aceptar o efectuar un traspaso de propiedad, suceder, efectuar una permutua de bienes' [DLU 86], (intensive stem) 'poner trabas, insidias, oponerse' [DLU 86]; PHO ʕḳb 'continuation' [T 256]; SAB ʕḳb 'to act as military chief, deputy; fortress' [SD 17-18] (meaning shift from 'to protect, be a protector'); GEZ ʕaḳaba 'to guard, to watch, to keep safe' [LGz 66], TGR ʕaḳbä 'to guard, to keep' [LH 468], TNA ʕaḳḳäbä 'custodire' [Bass 686], AMH aḳḳabi 'custodian' [K 1185] (this and other derivatives may be loans from GEZ), HAR ēḳäba 'to wait, to expect' [LHar 30].

    [Fron 49]: (*ʕaḳib- /GEZ ʕaḳaba 'custodire', ARB,SYR,HBR, UGR,AKK/); [DLU 86]: UGR, HBR, ARM, AKK, ARB; [KB 872]: HBR, UGR, ARM, ARB, AKK, TGR; [Brock 541]: SYR, ARM, HBR, ARB, AKK, ETH (verbs); [Holma 138]: AKK, HBR, ARB, SYR

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-tgr,semet-hrr,semet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *kaHab-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hoof'
Logone: kā́bē
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-log,

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