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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-ɔL
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Tsezi: joʎ
Ginukh: goʎa
Khvarshi: goʎe
Inkhokvari: goli
Bezhta: gäʎi (Khosh.)
Gunzib: li / lo
Comments: The verb occurs either with a preverb (*g-ɔL) or without it (in this case sometimes with initial reduction: Gunz. li / lo). In Bezhta the Khosh. form (gäʎi) is regular; other dialects reveal irregular transformations (Bezht. proper gej, Tlad. gel).

    The same root with Ablaut is used in PGB with the meaning 'to finish': PGB *=oL- > Bezht. Tlad. =oʎ-, Gunz. =ol-. The original meaning of the verb had been 'to lie, to (be) put' - as seen both from the external evidence and from the old derived noun *r-ɨLǝ A 'sheath, scabbard': PTsKh *Rɨ̃Lǝ ( < *RɨLǝ-n) > Tsez. reʎo / reʎi, Inkh. nɨno; PGB *rɨLǝ (Bezht. iʎo, Khosh., Tlad. riʎo, Gunz. rɨlǝ).

cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=äƛĔw
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to lie, to put; to lead
Proto-Nakh: *=ill-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *r-iƛo- / *ʔiƛo-
Proto-Tsezian: *-ɔL
Proto-Lak: xuj
Proto-Dargwa: *=ik- / *k-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeʎ:ʷɨ-
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʎ́ǝ-
Notes: Since the root acquires the meaning 'to begin' or 'to end' in several subgroups, it seems possible to compare the Hurrian derivate al-ummi 'end; last' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 50).

    The comparison seems quite plausible (see Абдоков 1983, 163; note also the existence of common EC and NC derivates meaning 'sheath, case' - see Абдоков 1983, 130). The final *-w has left traces in PA (*r-iƛobV), Lak. (Proto.-Lak. *ʎob(i) > Arch. ʎob) and PL (as labialisation of *-ʎ:ʷ-). In some languages, because of similar reflexes of *ƛ and *x, the root tends to be confused with PNC *-exE (q.v.), but they are opposed in several subgroups, and should be strictly distinguished.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=ill-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to lie 2 to put
Chechen: ʕ-ill- 1,=ill 2
Ingush: all- 1, =ill- 2
Batsbi: =ill- 2
Comments: A very productive PN root with rich Ablaut. It forms two vowel grade pairs:

    1) PN term. *-ill- (also with a *ʕ- preverb) > Chech. ʕill- "lie", -ill- "put upon (smth.)", Ing. -ill- "put", Bacb. -ill- id. / dur. *-ē-b-l > Bacb. -ebl- "put upon, inside". The root is also used with a t- prefix ( *t-ill- 'to put (from above)' > Chech., Ing., Bacb. till-, dur. *t-ēbl- > Bacb. tebl-.

    2) PN intr. *-āll- > Chech. -all- (-äll-ira) "be (put) inside", Ing. -all- (-oall-) "to be inside", all- "lie" / tr. *-ōll- > Chech., Ing., Bacb. -oll- "to put inside, put in".

    There are also some common Nakh forms with a single *-l- (geminated *-ll- in the forms listed above is either expressive, or reflects old suffixation). Besides *-ēbl- 'to put upon, inside' cf. also PN *=ōl- / *=ēbl- 'to begin' (Chech. =ōl-, Ing. =ol-, Bacb. =ol- / =ebl-), =āl- / *=ēbl- 'to finish' (Chech. =āl-/=īl-/=owl-, Ing. =al-). The semantic change 'to put > to begin/finish' ('*to put a beginning/end') is widely spread in Caucasian languages.

    An old nominal derivate is PN *lol ( < *r-ol = PC *rɨLǝ, PA *riƛV-) "leathern loop on belt for hanging up the dagger" (= "receptacle, place to put smth. in"), reflected in Chech. lol (lala-ra-), Ing. lol (lala-ro).

    [The productiveness of this root in PN may be explained by the fact that it probably reflects a merger of two EC roots: *-ä̆ƛĔw and *-iŁV 'to put'.]

nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *r-iƛo- / *ʔiƛo-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sheath, scabbard, case
Avar: ʎel
Chadakolob: tel
Andian language: reʎoba
Akhvakh: iƛa
Chamalal: jeʎab
Tindi: reʎab
Karata: ʎeli
Godoberi: reʎel
Comments: Av. paradigm C (ʎalí-l, ʎúl-dul, Chad. telá-l/telú-l, téla-l). Cf. also Akhv. Tseg., Tlan. inʎar, Ratl. inƛal (in the Tseg. and Ratl. dialects the stem merged with PA *ʔinƛVr 'bosom' q.v., but in North. Akhv. and in Tlan. the two stems are still different: iƛa vs. iƛari, inʎar vs. inʎari). Av. > Gin. ʎel.

    The listed forms are all derived from a verbal stem *-iƛ- - which is itself preserved only with the meaning 'to lead' (for the semantic shift cf. the meaning in Darg., and also cases like Chech. =āl-ō 'to lead' - formally causative from =āl- 'to be(come), be situated'): cf. Akhv. =eƛ- (Tseg., Tlan. =eʎ-, Ratl. =eƛ-), Kar. =eʎ-, Tind. =eʎ-. We should perhaps relate here also Cham. =aʎ- 'to begin' (cf. similar semantic development in Tsezian languages and elsewhere).

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: xuj
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sheath
Lak form: xuj
Comments: Cf. Khosr. xuj id. The Lak. form goes back to *xob(i) < *ʎow(i) (cf. PA *r-iƛobV), as seen from an archaic Arch. loanword from Laki: Arch. ʎob 'sheath, case'.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ik- / *k-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to lead
Akusha: =ik- / k-
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeʎ:ʷɨ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to put 2 to lie 3 to fall
Lezghian: ec:-ig- 1
Agul: aq-ux- 2
Rutul: s-i=xʷa- 3
Tsakhur: ʁal-i=xa- 2
Archi: e=ʎ:a- 1,2
Comment: Cf. also Ag. fat:-ix- 'to lie down', Ag. Bursh. am-exu-s 'stay', Arch. dur. =erʎ:u-r; Rut. k-i=xʷa-, Tsakh. g-i=xa- 'to get into'. The stem is partially contaminated with PL *ʔarʎɨ- 'fall' and *ʔeʎe- 'put' q.v.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ʎ́ǝ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: lie
Abkhaz: a-š́-ta-rá
Abaza: š́-ṭa-za-ra
Adyghe: -ʎǝ-
Kabardian: -ʎǝ-
Ubykh: -ʎǝ-
Comments: PAT *š́ǝ-ta- (with unclear glottalization in Abaz.); the element *-ta- may be possibly identified with the locative verbal stem *-ta- 'to be (inside)'. In AK (PAK *ʎǝ-) and Ub. this root is used only with locative preverbs (cf. Kab. jǝ-ʎǝ-n 'lie within', Ub. bʁ́a-ʎǝ- 'lie upon' etc.). In Ub. the root is confined to the plural (being the collective counterpart of -sǝ- q.v.).

    The transitive meaning ("to put") is not attested in the verbal paradigm, but there are some nominal derivates which have preserved it: cf. Kab. ʎa 'place' (*'place to put smth.'), Ub. ʎa-šʷá 'sheath, case' ("place (-šʷa) to put smth. in").

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=äƛĔw
Meaning: to lead
North Caucasian: *=äƛĔw
Sino-Tibetan: OC *lhūʔ 'road; to lead'
sccet-meaning,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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