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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ħas:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sky, cloud, fog
Tsezi: as
Ginukh: as
Khvarshi: as
Inkhokvari: as
Bezhta: has
Gunzib: has
Comments: PTsKh *ʔas, PGB *has. Used also in compound with PTs *mus: A 'smoke, fog' q.v.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʡăms_a (~ -ǝ,-ɨ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sky, cloud; soul, breath; god
Proto-Nakh: *ʔas-ar
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔas:V (~-o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *ħas:
Proto-Lak: as(:)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔams:
Proto-West Caucasian: *pǝsA
Notes: An important common NC root, basically meaning 'sky' but with original religious and mystic connotations. There are no nominal reflexes in PD, but since the meanings 'breath, to breathe' and 'to get tired' often interchange, it seems tempting to compare also Darg. Ur. =amsVr / = ums- 'to be tired, get tired'.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʔas-ar
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: inspiration
Chechen: asar
Comments: Isolated within Nakh, but with reliable external parallels.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔas:V (~-o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 breath 2 prestige, dignity
Avar: as: 2
Akhvakh: as:i 1
Comments: In Av. a secondary meaning development (*spirit > moral, dignity); note that this root has moral/religious connotations also in other languages.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: as(:)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: nobility, conscience; a heathen deity
Lak form: as
Comments: 3d class. Intensity of s unclear (gen. as-li-l with neutralization).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔams:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 raincloud 2 cloud
Tabasaran: ams 1
Agul: ams-ar 2 (Fit.)
Rutul: asɨj 2 (Khniukh)
Udi: haso 2
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. ams:a, Khür. ams:, Ud. Nidzh. asoj (in Rut. and Ud. there is a *-j suffix). 4th class in Rut.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *pǝsA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: soul, spirit
Abkhaz: a-psǝ́
Abaza: psǝ
Adyghe: psa
Kabardian: psa
Ubykh: psa
Comments: Cf. also Bz. a-psǝ́, Ub. def. a-psá. In PAK the derivate adjective *psá-wǝ 'alive, healthy' had acquired also the meaning 'whole, all' (see Шагиров 2, 14), although later these meanings became phonetically slightly differentiated - probably due to different syntactic accentuation (Ad. psaw 'alive', psāw 'whole', pstaw 'all' /with a not quite clear -t-/, Kab. psaw 'alive', psow 'whole', pso 'all').
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʡá̆msɨ
Meaning: soul, breath; god, sky
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʡăms_a (~ -ǝ,-ɨ)
Sino-Tibetan: *sɨā
Yenisseian: *ʔes
Burushaski: *-́s
Basque: *ɦaise
Comments and references : One of the exceptional cases where NC tense does not correspond to PY -ʔ-.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *sɨā
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: live, breathe
Chinese: *sā revive.
Tibetan: ãcho (p., i. sos) to live, gson to live, be alive; gso nourish; bring up, rear
Lushai: tho (thōk) to breathe, respire.
Comments: PG *so(n) to live; Yamphu sa:-ma to breathe. STEDT 144-145 (*g-sow 'rear (child)', 'bear (child)') includes Tib. gso-ba, as well as Ao Naga so 'give birth', Lolo-Burmese [*šu], as well as forms from Damu, Milang, Sangtam, Yimchungrü, Muya and Trung; note that there may be some interaction with *śū 'grandchild' q.v.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: sū
Preclassic Old Chinese:
Classic Old Chinese:
Western Han Chinese:
Eastern Han Chinese:
Early Postclassic Chinese:
Middle Postclassic Chinese:
Late Postclassic Chinese:
Middle Chinese: so
English meaning : a k. of tree (in a compound)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) сокр. СССР; советский; 2) сокр. пров. Цзянсу; г. Сучжоу; 3) бот. мелисса китайская (Perilla nankinensis); 4) оживать, возвращаться к жизни; пробуждаться от спячки; приходить в себя; 5) размякнуть, раскиснуть, см. 酥; 6) Су (фамилия)
Comments: Also used for a homonymous *sā 'to revive; tremble, fear' (in Chuci also 'take').
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 140
Four-angle index: 5412
Karlgren code: 0067 a-b
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 2487
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 遇合一平模心
ZIHUI: 5685 0839
Beijing: su 11
Jinan: su 11
Xi'an: sou 11
Taiyuan: su 1
Hankou: sou 11
Chengdu: su 11
Yangzhou: su 11
Suzhou: sǝu 11
Wenzhou: so_y 11
Changsha: sôu 11
Shuangfeng: sǝu 11
Nanchang: su 11
Meixian: si_ 11
Guangzhou: šou 11
Xiamen: sɔ 11
Chaozhou: sou 11
Fuzhou: su 11
Shanghai: su 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: su 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔes
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: God, sky
Ket: ēś, pl. eśáŋ / eśa:ŋ3
Yug: es, pl. ese:ŋ3
Kottish: ēš, pl. ēčán; (Бол.) eš
Arin: es (М, Сл, Кл, Срсл, Ф, Лоск), eš (Стр)
Pumpokol: eč (Сл, Срсл, Кл) 'sky', eg (Сл, Срсл, Кл) 'God' [the variation -č / -g reflects an articulation like -ć, cf. also -it in ur-áit 'rain' < *xur-ʔes].
Comments: ССЕ 188. Cf. also: Kott. ečā (dat.) 'upwards', ečāl (loc.) 'above'; Ass. öš (М, Сл, Срсл, Кл), eč (Кл), aš-parán (Сл) 'sky', ös, öš (М, Сл, Кл, Ф), eč (Кл), es, eš (Срсл, Ф) 'God'; Kam. eš (Стр), Koib. eš (Мес, П, Ф), Ed. oješ (Мес) 'God'. In Pump. cf. also lɨcɨ (Стр.) 'devil' = Ket. Imb. ĺɨtiś 'wood devil' ('mountain' + 'God'). Werner 1, 272-273 *es.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́s
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: heart, soul
Yasin: -́s
Hunza: -́s
Nagar: -́s
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ɦaise
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: wind
Araban: axe
Bizkaian: axe
Gipuzkoan: aize
High Navarrese: aize
Low Navarrese: aize
Salazarese: aize
Lapurdian: haize
Baztanese: aize
Aezkoan: aize
Zuberoan: áize
Roncalese: aize
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVMSV
Meaning : soul, breath
Eurasiatic : Alt. *mùsi 'steam, spirit'
Sino-Caucasian : *ʡá̆msɨ
Austric : AN *pu-su, Tai *caɨ heart (?)
Amerind (misc.) : *matiḳ (actually *mVCiḳ) 'smell' (R 654) [+ A K]
Notes : IE *Hans- may be < NC.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-notes,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *(pu)su
Meaning: heart
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Miao-Yao parallels: *sa liver
Proto-Austronesian: *pusu
Austronesian meaning: heart (not in B)
Proto-Thai: *caɨ heart
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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