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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: niš:e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 night 2 at night, in the evening
Tsezi: neširu 1,2
Ginukh: neši 1
Khvarshi: nišo-ho (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: nišo-ho 2
Bezhta: niše 1
Gunzib: niše 1
Comments: PTsKh *niše (~-ɨ-), PGB *niše. Cf. also Gin. nesa (with s/š alternation) 'evening'.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦnic_́wV̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: night, evening
Proto-Tsezian: *niš:e
Proto-Lak: šana-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʡiš:ʷ
Proto-Khinalug: äč:u-
Proto-West Caucasian: *(pǝ-)ʒ́ʷǝ
Notes: Except the metathesis in Lak. (rather usual in the HRVCV structure; regularly *naša-, *našu would be expected), correspondences are regular. In PWC there is a sporadic labial prefix (as in many other cases, possibly reflecting class prefixation).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: šana-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sleep
Lak form: šana-n
Comments: The word is derived (or vice versa) from šanu (3d class) 'sleep (n.).'
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʡiš:ʷ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: night
Lezghian: jif
Tabasaran: jiš̌
Agul: ʕüš
Rutul: wɨš / huš
Kryz: jif
Budukh: juǯenǯiǯ
Archi:
Udi: šü
Comment: Cf. also Lezg. Nüt. jüxʷ, Tab. Düb. již̌i, Ulz. jiš:̌, Ag. Bursh. iš:ʷ, Arch. adv. š:ʷi 'at night' ( = Ud. šü 'night'), Ud. üše adv. 'at night'. Bud. adv. juwu-z id. (the form juǯe-nǯiǯ is a result of early delabialisation and assimilation from *ʡiš:ʷe-). Oblique base *ʡiš:ʷa-, cf. Lezg. jife-/fe-, Tab. jiš̌a-, Rut. wɨši-). 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages.

    See Лексика 1971, 181; Гигинейшвили 1977, 94.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: äč:u-
North Caucasian etymology: 74
Meaning: sleep
Khinalug form: äč:uvi
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *(pǝ-)ʒ́ʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 dusk 2 evening
Abaza: ala-bǝǯ 1
Adyghe: pč́ǝ-ħa 2
Kabardian: pśǝ-ħa-śħa 2
Ubykh: zʷa-psǝ́-ǯ́
Comments: The basic meaning of the root *(Pǝ-)ʒ́ʷǝ is "dusk, evening (or morning) dawn". In Abkh. it was lost, and in Abaz. stayed only within a compound with (a)la- 'light' (same as in la-šara 'light', historically = "eye").

    In PAK the root *pćV ( < *P-ʒ́ʷǝ with devoicing) is used in compounds *pćǝ-ħa 'evening' (listed above) and *pća-dǝ- 'morning, tomorrow' (Kab. pśa-dej 'tomorrow', pśa-dǝ-ǯǝz 'morning', Ad. pč́a-dǝž́ 'morning'). Finally, in Ub. the root -ǯ́ is also used only in compounds: zʷapsǝ́-ǯ́ 'evening' (with zʷapsǝ́ id.) and sʷǝ-ǯ́ '(morning) dawn' (with sʷǝ id.).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ɦ[ć]wínV
Meaning: night; dream
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ɦnić_wV̆
Sino-Tibetan: *chĕn
Yenisseian: *sV(ʔ)m-
Basque: *a=meć
Comments and references : Some confusion with *=Vws_Vn. HGC 21, NSC 64 *HćwInV, WFR 52, LDC 28, 29, BCD 16.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *chĕn
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: night, dark
Tibetan: mchan night.
Kachin: nsin3 darkness, (H) sin to be or become dark.
Kiranti: *sèn-
Comments: ? Here perhaps Wancho raŋ-šai, LB *cin 'cloud' ( < 'darkness'?).
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *sènV
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: night
Tulung: sintha, siŋtha
Kaling: sene
Limbu: sen
Dumi: sīna
Kulung: sēpa
Yamphu: senda
Comments: Toba 93 *si __-.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: sɛndik
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: adv.
Meaning: at night, from midnight to dawn
Derivation: [sɛn night + -*dik period of day]
Comments: sɛndik phɛnʔɛ I'll come after midnight; cf. anchɛn, cf. biha:ndik, idik, lɛndik, ta:ndik, yunchik.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-dercomm,limet-comments,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: si:na
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: adv.
Meaning: night, nighttime, at night
Nepali: rāt, rātrī
Comments: cf. bɨknɨ, nulɨ, so:mna; si:na-peʔe.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,dumet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: se:pa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: night
Nepali: rāti.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: senda
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: night
Comments: senda-senda late at night.
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *sVm-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dream
Kottish: šame
Comments: ССЕ 279. Werner 2, 436.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *a=meć
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 dream 2 sleep
Bizkaian: ames 1
Gipuzkoan: amets 1
High Navarrese: amets 1
Low Navarrese: (arc) amens 2
Lapurdian: aments, amets 1
Zuberoan: ã́mẽts 1
Roncalese: amets 1
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVMNV
Meaning : dream
Eurasiatic : *CVm(ŋ)V
Afroasiatic : WChad. *sām- 'sleep, dream', Ar. smr- 'pass the night'
Sino-Caucasian : *ɦ[ć]wínV
Austric : PAA *cɨǝm 'night'
Amerind (misc.) : *cVm- 'night' (under *ṭumak R 507); *cima 'sleep' (R 646) [+ A?]
Notes : Cf. CVMV
Reference : ND 2693.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-notes,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʒVm(ŋ)V
Meaning: to think, dream
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ǯi̯ṑŋè; *ǯū̀mo 2633
Uralic: *śomV-rV 'Kummer, Trauer; ? traurig sein'
Kartvelian: *zm-
Dravidian: ?*zōmb-
References: ND 2692 *ž/źoMVnV 'think, remember, have a dream', 2693 *žom(V)RV 'dream' (?? + IE *onr-); hardly separatable.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ǯi̯ṑŋè
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dream, echo
Russian meaning: сновидение, эхо
Turkic: *jaŋ
Mongolian: *ǯeɣü-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯōŋi-
Korean: *čá(ŋ)-
Japanese: *dìmài / *dùmài
Comments: Semantically a challenging etymology, with some mythological connotations; nevertheless phonetically impeccable and seems quite probable as a common Altaic root.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jaŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 echo 2 sound, resound 3 to sound, pronounce
Russian meaning: 1 эхо 2 подражание звукам, звучание 3 звучать
Old Turkic: jaŋqu 1 (OUygh.), jaŋra- (Orkh.) 3
Karakhanid: jaŋqu 1, jaŋra- 3 (MK)
Turkish: jankɨ 1
Tatar: jaŋɣɨra- 3
Middle Turkic: jaŋqu 1 (AH)
Uzbek: jaŋgra- 3
Turkmen: jaŋ 2, jaŋra- 3
Oyrat: d́aŋu 1, d́aŋɨr- 3
Yakut: saŋa 2
Dolgan: haŋa 2
Tuva: čaŋɣɨ 1
Kirghiz: ǯaŋɨr- 3
Noghai: jaŋɨra- 3
Bashkir: jaŋɣɨra- 3
Karakalpak: žaŋɣɨr- 3
Kumyk: janɣɨr- 3
Comments: EDT 949, 952, ЭСТЯ 4, 119, 122, 124, Stachowski 96. Turk. > WMong. jaŋ 'melody' (Щербак 1997, 164).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ǯeɣü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 dream 2 to talk in one's sleep
Russian meaning: 1 сновидение 2 разговаривать во сне
Written Mongolian: ǯegüde(n), ǯegüdü(n) 1 (L 1043), ǯegüle- 2 (L 1044)
Middle Mongolian: ǯeu'udun (HY 35) 1, ǯūdäli- 'dream, pollution' 1 (IM)
Khalkha: ʒǖden 1, ʒǖle- 2
Buriat: zǖde(n) 1
Kalmuck: zǖdṇ (КРС)
Ordos: ǯǖde 1
Dongxian: ǯōǯin 1
Baoan: ǯoŋdoŋ, (Тод. Бн.) ǯudoŋ 1, ǯodele- 'to have a dream'
Dagur: ǯeud 1 (Тод. Даг. 143 ǯeude 1, ǯeule- 2), ǯeude 1, ǯeule 2 (MD 176)
Shary-Yoghur: ǯǖden 1
Monguor: ʒ́ūdin (SM 94), ǯūdǝn 1
Mogol: ǯöwdüla- (Ramstedt 1906) 'to dream'
Comments: MGCD 465.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ǯōŋi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to resound, echo; to imitate
Russian meaning: раздаваться (эху); подражать
Even: ǯōŋị-
Comments: ТМС 1, 265. Attested only in Evn., with possible external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čá(ŋ)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to sleep
Russian meaning: спать
Modern Korean: ča-, ča-si-, čumu-si-
Middle Korean: ča-, čá-sì-, ča'ăp-so-
Comments: Nam 411, KED 1374, 1380, 1497. The modern honorific čumu-si- is probably < *čaŋwu-si- ~ *čaŋup-si- = MKor. ča'ăp-so-.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *dìmài / *dùmài
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dream
Russian meaning: сновидение
Old Japanese: ime, dial. jumi
Middle Japanese: ìmè, jume
Tokyo: yumé
Kyoto: yúmè
Kagoshima: yumé
Comments: JLTT 579.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 989
Proto: *śomV-rV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: sorrow; be sad, sorry
German meaning: Kummer, Trauer; ? traurig sein
Mordovian: śumuŕd́e-, śumoŕd́e- 'sich grämen' ?
Udmurt (Votyak): (śuma- - Samm.)
Komi (Zyrian): (śumal- - Samm.)
Hungarian: szomorú 'traurig, betrübt', szomorít- 'betrüben, traurig machen' ?
Sammalahti's version: *s'oma/i- (mit Ud \s'uma-, Ko \s'umal-)
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mrd,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *zm-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: мечтать, грезить
English meaning: to dream
Georgian: zm-an-; si-zm-ar- 'dream (n.)'
Megrel: zim-
Svan: zm-āl-
Laz: zm-
Laz meaning (Rus.): думать; e-zm-oǯ-e 'сон'
Laz meaning (Eng.): to think; e-zm-oǯ-e 'dream (n.)'
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 88, EWK 145-146.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *zōmb-
Meaning : drowsy, lazy, idle; swoon
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *zōmb-
Proto-Telugu : *zōm-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *zōmb-
Meaning : idle, drowsy
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : cōmpu (cōmpi-)
Tamil meaning : to be idle, indolent, slothful, lethargic, apathetic, dull, droop, fade (as persons, plants), be spoiled, marred; n. sloth, idleness, inactivity, lethargy, dullness
Tamil derivates : cōmpal sloth, drowsiness, stupor; cōmpēr_i, cōmār_i sluggard, idler; cōmār_u (cōmār_i-) to be lazy, shirk; cōppu (cōppi-) to cause to droop, languish; cōpam fainting, swooning, languor, lassitude, fatigue, prostration, drowsiness, heaviness, indolence; cōpalam laziness, sluggishness
Kannada : jompisu, jōmpisu
Kannada meaning : to get intoxicated, bewildered, stupefied
Kannada derivates : jompu, jōmpu inebriation, stupor, suspension of sensibility, paralysation; jommu id.; sound used of the sensation of numbness of a limb kept long in one position (also jōmu); jōba, jōbadra a dull, lazy man; sōmāri sluggard, idler; sōmāritana sluggishness, laziness; soppisu to cause to slacken, languish, sink away; soppu to slacken, repress, check; n. slackness, weakness, languishing, sinking away
Tulu : sōmāri
Tulu meaning : lazy man, lazy, indolent
Proto-Nilgiri : *Sōmār-
Notes : All the forms with initial *s- seem to be Tamil borrowings: Tamil cōmpēr_i/cōmār_i is responsible for Kota cōmāry/cōmbēry, Kan. and Tulu sōmāri; Kannada soppu, soppisu < Tam. cōppu?
Number in DED : 2882
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *Sōmār-
Meaning : idle fellow
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : cōmāry, cōmbēry
Number in DED : 2882
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *zōm-
Meaning : swoon, fainting, faintness, torpidity
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : somma
Additional forms : Also sōma fatigue; [1] sōmari, [2] sōmāri an idle person, idler, sluggard; (B) jōmu torpidity, stupefaction or silliness with pride
Notes : Two roots?
Number in DED : 2882
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-notes,telet-dednum,

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