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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: cu
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: self, oneself
Lak form: cu
Comments: Cf. Khosr. cu id. Lak. has stems cu (pl. ci-w) and ca- (gen./erg. ca-l).

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *č[ŭ]
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: self, oneself (3d-4th class)
Proto-Lak: cu
Proto-Dargwa: *če- / ču-
Proto-Lezghian: *-ič(ʷ)
Proto-West Caucasian: *čʷǝ
Notes: The opposition of *ʒ́ĭ 'self' (1-2 cl., animated) : *čŭ 'self' (3-4th cl., unanimated) is well preserved in PL. Most other languages have preserved only one of these roots.

    The development *č- > c- in Lak. is irregular (typical for pronominal morphemes, cf. *čwi 'who, what' > Lak. cu-, ci-). It is unclear also, whether we should relate here PN *šā '(one)self' (Chech. šā, Ing. še, Bacb. ša-jrwa) - phonetically absolutely irregular [perhaps it should be rather compared with PL *šä- 'demonstr. pronoun, that']. The semantics of the PAT subject version is well explained if we assume its origin from a pronoun; the phonetic side is quite satisfactory.


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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *če- / ču-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: (one)self (reflex. pronoun)
Akusha: ču-
Chiragh: čej
Comments: Cf. also Chir. gen. čin-na. In lit. Dargwa the stem is used only in plural (erg. ču-li, gen. ču-la, dat. ču-s); in singular a morpheme sa(j) (of obscure origin) is used.

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *-ič(ʷ)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: self, oneself (reflexive pronoun)
Lezghian: wič
Tabasaran: uč̌
Tsakhur: či-n(a) (gen.)
Comment: In Tsakh. the stem is used only for the 3d/4th classes (opposed to ǯu-/ǯe-, see PL *-iž); in Lezg. and Tab. it is used for the 3d person (while the stem *-iž is used for the 1st and 2d persons). The original usage is probably the Tsakhur one.

    The PL paradigm can be reconstructed as *ʔičʷ (dir. stem), *ča- (obl. stem, cf. Tab. gen. ča-n, Ag. Bursh. ič̌, če-).


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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *čʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: for oneself (prefix of the subject version)
Abkhaz: č(ǝ)-
Abaza: č(ǝ)-
Comments: PAT *čǝ-.

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *[č]V ( ~ št-)
Meaning: self
North Caucasian: *č[ŭ] ( < *d-š[ŭ], cf. Nakh *ša?)
Sino-Tibetan: *śǝj
Basque: *-če

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *śǝj
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: private, oneself
Chinese: *sǝj private, oneself
Tibetan: śe, śe-dag, śa-sdag for oneself only, only, privately

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Chinese characters :

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Modern (Beijing) reading: sī
Preclassic Old Chinese: sǝj
Classic Old Chinese: sǝj
Western Han Chinese: sǝj
Eastern Han Chinese: sjǝj
Early Postclassic Chinese: sjij
Middle Postclassic Chinese: sjij
Late Postclassic Chinese: sji
Middle Chinese: sji
English meaning : be private; to turn into one's own, keep for oneself; sister's husband
Russian meaning[s]: 1) частный, личный; 2) тайный, скрываемый; контрабандный; контрабанда; 3) тайная любовная связь; вступить во внебрачную связь; 4) частный (не публичный); неофициальный; домашний; 5) эгоистичный; корыстный; порок; порочный; 6) мочиться; 7) половые органы; 8) древн. домашняя одежда; 9) жить частной жизнью; 10) фаворит(ка); 11) мелочь, безделица
Shuowen gloss: 禾也.從禾.**聲.北道名禾主人曰私主人. [321]
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 115
Four-angle index: 8624
Karlgren code: 0557 b
Shijing occurrences: 2.3_, 57.1_

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 439
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
MC description : 止開三平脂心
ZIHUI: 4424 0426
Beijing: si_ 11
Jinan: si_ 11
Xi'an: si_ 11
Taiyuan: si_ 1
Hankou: si_ 11
Chengdu: si_ 11
Yangzhou: si_ 11
Suzhou: si_ 11
Wenzhou: si_ 11
Changsha: si_ 11
Shuangfeng: si_ 11
Nanchang: si_ 11
Meixian: si_ 11
Guangzhou: ši 11
Xiamen: su 11
Chaozhou: si_ 11
Fuzhou: sy 11
Shanghai: si_ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: si_ 1

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *-če
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: emphatic suffix on demonstratives and adverbs
Bizkaian: -txe, -xe
Gipuzkoan: -txe, -xe
High Navarrese: -txe, -xe
Low Navarrese: -txe, -xe
Lapurdian: -txe, -xe
Zuberoan: -txe, -xe
Roncalese: -txe, -xe
Comments: *-če after consonants, *-še after vowels: hor-txe 'right there', hau-xe 'this one', handi-xe 'a little too big', aita-xe 'grandfather', etc. (Trask 1995: 67).

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