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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=aq̇-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to eat
Chechen: =aʔ-
Ingush: =aʔ-
Batsbi: =aq̇-
Comments: One of the cases of irregular development *-q̇- > -ʔ- in Chech.-Ing. Also means "gnaw" in Chech.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HĕmG_Ă
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to bite
Proto-Nakh: *=aq̇-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇:am- / *q̇:an-
Proto-Tsezian: *=ũq- (~*=ĩqʷ-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeq̇:ɨ-
Proto-Khinalug: q̇ɨn-
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇IA
Notes: Correspondences are regular. The quality of the initial laryngeal is not quite clear (there is not enough evidence), but it must be reconstructed to account for the PWC pharyngealization.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *q̇:am- / *q̇:an-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to bite 2 to eat (tr.)
Chadakolob: q̇am- 1
Andian language: q̇:am- 1
Akhvakh: q̇:onu- 2
Chamalal: q̇:an- 1
Tindi: q̇:an- 2
Karata: q̇:am- 2
Botlikh: q̇:am- 1
Bagvalal: q̇:an- 2
Godoberi: q̇:am- 1
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Anch. q̇:am- 'bite', Akhv. Tseg., Ratl. q̇:am- 'eat'. In Akhv. the word for 'bite' is q̇:eleč̣u-ru- which is probably an old compound *q̇:am-lV-Hič̣- (see *Hič̣-).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=ũq- (~*-ĩqʷ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to eat
Bezhta: =üq-
Gunzib: =ũq-
Comments: PGB *=ũq-.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔeq̇:ɨ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bite
Archi: =eq̇:a-
Comment: Dur. =erq̇:u-r. The Arch. form is isolated within Lezgian, but has rather reliable external correspondences.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: q̇ɨn-
North Caucasian etymology: 277
Meaning: to eat
Khinalug form: q̇ɨni
Comments: Term. q̇ɨn-i, dur. q̇an-dä.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q̇IA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to bite
Abkhaz: á-c-ħa-ra
Abaza: c-ħa-ra
Adyghe: ja-ca-q:a-n
Kabardian: (ja)-ʒa-q:a-n
Ubykh: q̇Iǝ-
Comments: Cf. also Abkh. Bz. -c-ħa-, Ub. 1st p. sǝ́-q̇Iǝ-n. In PAT and PAK present is a compound with 'tooth' as a first component: PAT *cǝ-ħa-, PAK *c:a-q:a-. PAT *ħ reflects rather PWC *q̇Í (with palatalization due to Ablaut?); the normal reflex q̇ is present in the reduplicated form PAT *q̇aq̇A (Abkh. á-q̇aq̇a-ra, Abaz. q̇aq̇-ra) = Ub. q̇Iaq̇Iǝ- 'to chew'.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *Hé̆mxGĂ
Meaning: to bite
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *HĕmG_Ă
Sino-Tibetan: *k(h)ejH
Burushaski: *káu- / *qáu-
Basque: *hagin
Comments and references : HGC 18, NSC 55 *xGVjV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *k(h)ejH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bite
Chinese: *kājʔ (??: Fuzhou ka242 'bite')
Burmese: khajh to bite and hold fast.
Lushai: keiʔ to bite, KC *m-keiʔ.
Comments: Rawang khä. Sh. 404. Cf. also: Tujia ka, Padam (Tani) ke, Naga *kei, Kham kǝi 'bite'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *káu- / *qáu-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: to put in mouth, chew
Yasin: káu-, kháu-, qáu-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *hagin
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 tooth (incisor) 2 to bite 3 molar tooth 4 eye-tooth, canine 5 teeth (teeth and molars)
Bizkaian: agin 1, aginka egin 2
Gipuzkoan: agin 3, ortzagin 4, 5
High Navarrese: agin 3, ortzagin 5
Low Navarrese: hagin 3, ortzagin 5
Lapurdian: hagin 3, ortzagin 5
Zuberoan: hágin 3, ortzagin 5
Roncalese: ortzagin 5
Comments: See also *le-t-hagin 'eye-tooth, canine tooth, fang', *horc 'tooth'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVWV
Meaning : bite, chew ?
Eurasiatic : *käjwV (?-b-)
Sino-Caucasian : ? *Hé̆mxGĂ
Amerind (misc.) : *kua 'bite' (R 58) [+ A K]; *ko 'eat' (R 214) [+ A]; *kua 'mouth' (R 490); ? *ʔik 'tooth' (actually 'eat') (R 777) [+ A], *yok 'tooth' (R 778); ? *waḳi 'flesh; feed' (R 471) [+ A]
Notes : (For Nostr. cf. PAA *kap 'bite')
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-notes,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *käjwV (?-b-)
Meaning: to chew
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gieu- / *g'ieu- 'to chew' (Pok. 400)
Altaic: *kēpu
Dravidian: *kabb- 'to bite, swallow'; SDR *kaviḷ 'cheek; jaw' [1181]
Comments: [PD *kabb- is in fact *kamb- and is rather related to IE *ǵembh- etc.; PD *kaviḷ = PK *q̇ab-?]
References: МССНЯ 340, ОСНЯ 1, 293; ND 975 *käywV 'to chew' (w/o Drav.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *geyew-, *gyēw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to chew
Tokharian: A, B śu(wā)- (PT *śuwā-) 'eat, consume, devour' (Adams 631); A śwāl 'food', B śwāl 'corpse' (PT *śwāl) (645)
Other Iranian: NPers ǰāvīdan `kauen', Pashto žōvǝl 'chew, bite'
Armenian: kiv, gen. kvoy 'Baumharz'
Slavic: *žьvātī, *žūtī, *žijǭ, *žьvǭ; *žūnā (> Blg жуна 'Lippe, Mund')
Baltic: *ǯeûn-ā̂ f. (1), *ʒaûn-ā̂ f., *ǯjō̂-kl-a- c. (2)
Germanic: *kiww-(i)á- vb., *kūw-a- vb.; *kiww-ṓ(n-) f.
Russ. meaning: жевать
References: WP I 642
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: жева́ть,
Near etymology: жую́, укр. жу́ти, жува́ти, жую́, сербск.-цслав. жьвати, жую μηρυκᾶσθαι, болг. прежи́вам (Младенов 164), словен. prežívati "пережевывать", др.-чеш. žváti, žvu, слвц. žvat', žujem, польск. żuć, żuję, żwać, в.-луж. žwać, žuju, н.-луж. žuś, žuju, полаб. zåvat.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. žiáunos, мн. "жабры, [диал.] челюсти", лтш. žaũnas "жабры, челюсти", болг. жу́на "губа", лтш. žaunât "есть помногу", д.-в.-н. kiuwan, ср.-в.-н. kiuwen "жевать", англ. chew, нов.-перс. ǰāvīden "жевать", афг. žōvul "жевать", арм. kiv, род. п. kvoy "древесная смола", но, по-видимому, не лат. gin-gīva "десна"; см. Лиден, Armen. Stud. 68; Mél. Mikkola 119 и сл.; Зубатый, IFAnz. 3, 162; И. Шмидт, KSchlBeitr. 6, 133; Траутман, BSW 372; М. -- Э. 4, 791; Хюбшман, Pers. Stud. 49; Хорн, Neupers. Et. 93.
Pages: 2,39-40
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ǯeûn-ā̂ f. (1), *ʒaûn-ā̂ f., *ǯjō̂-kl-a- c. (2)
Meaning: jaw, gills
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: žiáuna, pl. žiáunōs 'Kieme, Kinnbackenlocken; pl. Kiemen der Fische, Kiefer', žiaũnī-s id., žáuna, žiaunà, žiáunē '(Brot)knust, -kanten'
Lettish: žaũnas pl. 'Fischkiefer, -kieme; Kiefer, Kinnlade'; žuôkls 'Kinnlade, Gaumen; Kiefer(n) der Fische'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kiww(i)án-, *kūwan-; *kiwwṓ(n)
Meaning: chew, jaw
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: tüggja, tüggva st. `kauen, essen'; tugga f. `Bissen'
Norwegian: tüggja vb.; tugga `Bissen'
Swedish: tugga wk.; tugga `das Gekaute'
Danish: tügge vb.
Old English: cēowan
English: chew
Middle Dutch: { couwen, cuwen }; cauwen wk.
Dutch: { kaiwen wk. }
Middle Low German: kuwen; kouwen wk.
Old High German: kiuwan (8.Jh.); OHG kewa f. челюст
Middle High German: kiuwen, kiun (prt. kou, ptc. gekouwen) st. 'kauen' (nbff. kiwen, kewen, kouwen), md. kūwen, kūgen, kiugen st.; kiuwe, kiwe, këwe, kouwe wk./st. f. 'kiefer, kinnbacken'
German: kauen; käuen (bis ins 18.Jh)
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 585
Root: g(i̯)eu-, ĝ(i̯)eu-
English meaning: to chew
German meaning: `kauen'
Material: Npers. jāvīdan `kauen', afgh. žōvạl, žōyạl ds., `beißen, nagen' (iran. *jyav-);

    arm. kveni `Pechföhre, Lärche';

    aisl. tyggja, -va `kauen' (für *kyggja nach tǫgla `kauen'), schwed. tugga, ags. cēowan, nengl. chew, mnd. keuwen, ahd. kiuwan, mhd. kūwen `kauen' (*kewian); ahd. kewa, mhd. kiuwe f. `Kiefer, Kinnbacken'; abgeleitet: ags. cēace, afries. ziāke f. (*keukōn) und afries. kēse `Backenzahn', mnd. kǖse, mnl. kūze, ablautend mnl. kieze ds.;

    baltoslav. *ži̯aui̯ō `kaue' in:

    lit. žiáunos f. Pl. `Kiefer', lett. žaũnas f. Pl. `Kiefer, Kinnladen, Kiemen';

    r.-ksl. žuju (*zjou-) und žьvǫ, žьvati (*zjьv-), ačech. žiji, žváti, russ. žujú, ževátь `kauen'; dazu (aus baltoslav. *ži̯áunā) bulg. žúna f. `Lippe' und skr. žvȁlo n. `Rachen, Engpaß', žvà́le f. Pl. `Gebiß am Zaume'; russ. žvákatь `kauen', žvak `Lärchenharz als Zahnputzmittel';

    toch. AB św-ā-tsi `essen' (Pedersen Toch. Sprachg. 43);

    vgl. ferner gʷīu̯- `Harz'.

References: WP. I 642, WH. I 601, Trautmann 372, Lidén Ann. Acad. Scient. Fennicae 27, 119.
Pages: 400
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kēpu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to chew
Russian meaning: жевать
Turkic: *gēb-
Mongolian: *kebi-
Tungus-Manchu: *keb-
Japanese: *kùp-
Comments: KW 229, Poppe 20, 46, ОСНЯ 1, 293, АПиПЯЯ 15, 69, 109, 279, Ozawa 208-209, Дыбо 14, Лексика 227. Correspondences are regular except for low tone in Jpn. (high tone would be expected).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gēb-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to chew
Russian meaning: жевать
Karakhanid: kev- (MK)
Turkish: gev-
Tatar: küšä-
Middle Turkic: keviš 'cud' (MA, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kawša-
Uighur: köjši-
Azerbaidzhan: göjüš 'cud'
Turkmen: gǟvü-š 'cud'
Khakassian: kipse-n-
Shor: kepže-n-
Oyrat: kepše-
Halaj: kǟviš 'cud'
Chuvash: kavle-
Yakut: kebī-
Tuva: kegže-n-
Tofalar: kegže-
Kirghiz: küj-š-ö-
Kazakh: küjis 'cud'
Noghai: küjze-
Bashkir: köjöš 'cud'
Gagauz: gevše-
Karaim: kövše-n-
Karakalpak: güjse-
Salar: küšä-
Kumyk: güjše-
Comments: VEWT 244, EDT 687, ЭСТЯ 3, 5-7.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kebi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to chew
Russian meaning: жевать
Written Mongolian: kebi- (L 439)
Middle Mongolian: kebi- (MA)
Khalkha: xeve- (Gomb.)
Buriat: xibe- 'жевать (только о жвачных животных)'
Kalmuck: kew-
Ordos: kewe-
Shary-Yoghur: kewǝ-
Monguor: kēji- (SM 199), (MGCD kē-)
Comments: KW 229, MGCD 348.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *keb-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to gnaw, bite (with front teeth) 2 to pierce through 3 a big arrow
Russian meaning: 1 грызть, кусать (передними зубами) 2 продырявить 3 большая стрела, пробивающая насквозь
Evenki: kewde- 2
Even: kēwri- 1
Literary Manchu: kejfule- 2, kejfu 3
Comments: ТМС 1, 442. {Cf. also Oroch. keputi-, Ud. kefuge- 'gnaw, bite' - ТМС 1, 452).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to eat
Russian meaning: есть
Old Japanese: kup-
Middle Japanese: kùf-
Tokyo: kú-
Kyoto: kù-
Kagoshima: kù-
Hateruma: hò-
Yonakuni: Fú-
Comments: JLTT 718.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kabb-
Meaning : to bite; to swallow
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kabb-
Proto-Telugu : *kam-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kab-
Proto-North Dravidian : *qap-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kabb-
Meaning : to gorge
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kappu (kappi-)
Tamil meaning : to gorge, cram into mouth
Tamil derivates : kavvu (kavvi-), kauvu (kauvi-) to seize with the mouth, grasp with eagerness; n. bite, seizing by the mouth (as dog), eating
Malayalam : kappuka, kammuka
Malayalam meaning : to snap at, eat as a dog or madman
Malayalam derivates : (Kauṭ.) kauvuka to seize with mouth, bite
Kannada : kapa, kaba, gapa, gappa, gaba
Kannada meaning : imit. of the sound emitted in eager gulping (mostly also reduplicated)
Kannada derivates : kabakkane, kappane, kavakkane, gabakkane in a snatching manner, with the sound produced in snatching, with the sound of gulping quickly
Kodagu : kabb- (kabbi-)
Kodagu meaning : to seize with wide-open mouth (of dogs, tigers, etc.)
Tulu : kappuni
Tulu meaning : to eat greedily
Tulu derivates : gabagaba gulping, swallowing; kapparaṇṭu a glutton
Number in DED : 1222
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kam-
Meaning : to nibble at, swallow
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kamucu
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : kamiyu "to swallow, gulp down"
Additional forms : Also kami a lump of food; kamikili a handful to eat; kamikẽḍu a large handful; (K) kavvu to seize by mouth
Number in DED : 1222
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kab-
Meaning : to bite
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kap-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kab-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kap-
Meaning : to bite
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : kap- (-t-)
Manda : kap- (-t-)
Number in DED : 1222
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kab-
Meaning : to swallow, gulp
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : kappa (kapt-) "to swallow liquid hastily, gulp, drink"
Kuwi (Israel) : kap- (-it-) "to eat fast like a dog"
Additional forms : Also Kui kavali giva to chew the cud; Kuwi_Isr gab- (-it-) to eat fast
Notes : In Kui kappa < *kabpa. In Kuwi_Isr gab- is the original form (< *kab- with assimilation), and kap- is the p-conjugation, although here -p- has become so closely connected to the root that it has lost its morpheme status and became part of the root (this explains the past tense -it-). The form kap- can be also considered as a borrowing from SDR.
Number in DED : 1222
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *qap-
Meaning : to swallow (any thickish liquid), drink (e.g. broth, rice-water, medicine)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : xappnā
Additional forms : Also KUR xappā leech; habkā a bite; habkaʔānā to bite.
Number in DED : 1222
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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