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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ħā-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: who (obl. stem)
Chechen: ħa (erg.)
Ingush: ħa (erg.)
Batsbi: ħa (erg.)
Comments: Cf. also Chech. gen. ħē-na- etc. The stem also serves for building relative and indefinite pronouns (Chech. ħē-neχ 'someone', Bacb. ħane '...who,...which' etc.).

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *hī, *hī-nV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun
Proto-Nakh: *ħā-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *hi-/*ʔi-
Proto-Tsezian: *hi- A
Proto-Lezghian: *hi- / *ha-
Proto-Khinalug: ja
Proto-West Caucasian: *-a
Notes: One of several interrogative stems reconstructed for PEC. It has a general interrogative meaning and is most often used in oblique cases.

    The root *hī- is frequently encountered in combination with *-nV-, probably as an oblique stem construction *hīnV- 'whose, which, what'. We have mentioned above the secondary development *hīnV- > nV- in some Lezgian languages, but the same process probably had taken place in other languages too. Cf. PA *(h)i-n- (in *(h)in-da 'when' > And. inna-l, Cham. inna, Tind. hin-da-la, God. in-da-q:i, *(h)inV-l 'where' > And. inu-l, Tind. ini-la etc.) = PTs *hɨ̃tǝ / *nitǝ ( < *hini-tǝ ) 'when' (Inkh. ito, Tsez. neti, Gin. nete, Bezht. nito, Gunz. hɨ̃dǝ), PTs *na / *nija 'where' (Inkh., Tsez. na, Gin. ni, Bezht. nā, Gunz. nijõ). It is significant that an identical combination *-a-nǝ- is also attested in WC languages: PAT *-anǝ- 'when' (a verbal infix > Abkh. -an(ǝ)-, Abaz. -an(ǝ)-), Ub. aná-(n) 'at the time, when...". We can thus safely reconstruct the morpheme combination *hīnV- for the PNC level.


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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *hi-/*ʔi-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun (what 1, who 2)
Andian language: e-bi- 1, e-mi 2
Chamalal: e-b 1,e-w/j 2
Tindi: i-ma-la 2
Karata: he-me 2
Botlikh: e-b 1, ẽ(w) 2
Bagvalal: e-b 1, e-m 2
Godoberi: e-b 1, e-(w,j)2
Comments: The root is used either independently (with the suffixed class marker -b) - mostly in the 3d (inanimate) class, but in Cham. and God. also in the 1st/2d classes - or in conjunction with another interrogative stem, *mV (see *ʔi-mV) - in the 1st/2d classes. Cham., Tind. and Kar. reflect also a stem *hidV- / *ʔidV- 'what' - but since there does not exist a class marker *-d, it is rather a quite different stem (see under *ʡǟdV 'thing; interrog. pronoun').

    The most archaic form is Kar. (with *h-); other languages reflect the PA weakened variant, *ʔi-.


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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *hi-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun (which 1, how 2)
Khvarshi: hi-ba (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: hi-bo 1
Gunzib: hi-na 2
Comments: PTsKh *hi-bǝ; cf. also Gunz. hɨ̃-dǝ 'when'.

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *hi-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun (which)
Lezghian: hi
Tabasaran: hi-ʔan
Agul: hi-na (erg.)
Rutul: ha-la (erg.)
Tsakhur: hi-šu, hi-ǯo
Kryz: ha-lɨr (erg.)
Budukh: he-je
Archi: ha-n
Udi: he
Comment: We can reconstruct for PL the direct stem *hi (Lezg. hi 'which', Ud. Nidzh. he, Vart. e 'what, which'); the same stem is used in Tsakh. (in conjunction with other interrogatives) hi-šu 'who' and hi-ǯo 'what', and, as oblique, in Tab. hi-ʔan / hi-q̇an 'how many', Ag. erg. hi-na 'who', Bud. he-je 'where'. M. Alekseyev suggested that several interrogative forms in Lezgian languages beginning with n- actually go back to the same stem with reduction of the initial unstressed syllable (thus n- does not represent any independent interrogative morpheme, but is just an old oblique stem marker *-nV). Cf. Ag. Rich. na 'who (erg.)' which is obviously identic with Ag. Tp. hi-na. In this way we can explain Lezg. erg. ni (< *hi-ni), Tab. naʔan 'where' (< *hi-na-ʔan), Tsakh. ne-n 'which' (< *hi-ne-n).

    Besides the oblique base *hi-nV- there existed in PL a variant *ha- (sometimes also *ha-nV- with the same oblique stem marker) reflected in Rut. erg. ha-la 'who', Kryz. erg. ha-lɨr id., Arch. ha-n 'what', Bud. ha-nu 'whose'. See Aлексеев 1985,74.


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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: ja
North Caucasian etymology: 2295
Meaning: what
Khinalug form: ja

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *-a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what, who (interrogative stem)
Abkhaz: -a(-)
Abaza: -a(-)
Comments: In Abkh. the meaning of interrogative pronouns is normally expressed by verbal suffixes -da ('who'), -j ('what'). Since d- and j- are class markers (animate/unanimate respectively), the only morpheme to which we can ascribe the interrogative meaning is -a (probably reduced in *-ja > -j). The same morpheme can be seen in -a-ba- 'where' and independent pronouns d-a-rban 'who', j-a-rban 'what' (the -rban suffix is not very clear etymologically - perhaps it contains the root *-ba- 'to see' q.v.?). In Abaz. the situation is analoguous - only in the function of independent pronouns we have d-zač̣ʷǝ-j-a 'who' and j-zač̣ʷǝ-j-a (or ač̣ʷǝja) 'what'. These are derived (by suffixing the same hypothetic interrogative morpheme *-a) from d-zač̣ʷ, j-zač̣ʷ 'each' (ač̣ʷ probably had also existed) where -zač̣ʷ = Abkh. -zač̣ǝ 'single' (from *zA 'one').

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *hē-nV
Meaning: interrogative stem (mostly adverbial: where, when, how)
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *hī-nV
Sino-Tibetan: *niāŋ (/-āiŋ)
Yenisseian: *ʔan-
Burushaski: *án-
Basque: *no-
Comments and references : HGC 36, DCE 34. NC data suggest that the form *hē-nV is an oblique stem of the original interrogative *hē-. However, the latter is attested independently only in NC, and may be in fact a reanalysis of the originally infrangible form *hēnV.

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *nēŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: how, where, interrogative pronoun
Chinese: *n_ēŋ why, how.
Burmese: nańh marker of special question.
Kachin: gǝnaŋ3 where?, gǝniŋ2 id.
Comments: Cf. also OCh. 那 *n_āj how, what.

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Chinese characters :

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Modern (Beijing) reading: níng
Preclassic Old Chinese: nēŋ
Classic Old Chinese: nēŋ
Western Han Chinese: nēŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: niēŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: niēŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: niēŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: niēŋ
Middle Chinese: nieŋ
English meaning : be tranquil, at ease
Russian meaning[s]: 1) спокойный, тихий; покой, тишь; 2) уйти на покой, вернуться в родные места; 3) сокр. г. Нанкин, вм. 甯; [nìng] 1) лучше, лучше уж; предпочитать; 2) разве, неужели
Shuowen gloss: 願詞也.從**甯聲. [203]
Comments: For *n- cf. Min forms: Xiamen liŋ2, Chaozhou leŋ2, Fuzhou niŋ2.

    The meaning 'be calm, tranquil' is often related to 'soul, spirit, heart' (cf. e.g. the development of the Turkic root *tɨ̄n or ST *nV̄m). This makes it possible to derive the Chinese word from PST *niŋ (Tib. sńiŋ 'spirit, mind' etc.)

    The character 寧 is also used for a homonymous OC *nēŋ 'why (in rhetorical questions)'.

Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 40
Four-angle index: 2939
Karlgren code: 0837 a-f
Shijing occurrences: 2.3, 29.1, 29.2

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1802
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
MC description : 梗開四平青泥
ZIHUI: 1380 2548
Beijing: niŋ 12
Jinan: ńiŋ 12
Xi'an: ńiŋ 12
Taiyuan: niŋ 1
Hankou: nin 12
Chengdu: nin 12
Yangzhou: nĩ 12
Suzhou: ńin 12
Wenzhou: ńiaŋ 12
Changsha: ńin 12
Shuangfeng: ńin 12
Nanchang: lin 31 (lit.); liaŋ 31
Meixian: nɛn 12
Guangzhou: nîŋ 12
Xiamen: lîŋ 12
Chaozhou: leŋ 12
Fuzhou: niŋ 12
Shanghai: ńiŋ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: niǝŋ 12

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔan-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative stem
Ket: anet, ana 'who'; (КРС) anun 'how much', ań 'why'
Yug: anet 'who'
Comments: ССЕ 181. Werner 1, 34, 36, 38.

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *án-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 where 2 whither
Yasin: áne 1, ána 2

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *no-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 who 2 where 3 when 4 how
Araban: nox 3
Bizkaian: no, nor 1, non, nun 2, noiz, nox, nos, noz 3
Gipuzkoan: no, nor 1, non 2, noiz 3, nola 4
High Navarrese: nor 1, non 2, noiz 3, nola 4
Low Navarrese: nor 1, non, nun 2, noiz 3, nola 4
Lapurdian: nor 1, non 2, noiz 3, nola 4
Zuberoan: nur 1, nun 2, nuiz 3, nula, nulaz 4
Roncalese: nor 1, non 2, noiz 3, nola 4

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : NV
Meaning : interrog. or relat. pronoun
Eurasiatic : *ŋiV
Afroasiatic : *nV 'who, what' (Cush., Chad.); *ʔaj / *ʔaw- (Cush., Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : *hē-nV
Austric : PAA *nVw 'who', PAN *anu what
Amerind (misc.) : *na 'interrogative' (R 398) [+ A K]
African (misc.) : Bantu *-yànị́ 'who, what'.
Notes : Cf. also Ainu *ne- 'what, who'. [Forms like *jV are tentatively united, but may in fact represent a different root].
Reference : ND 1633.

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ŋiV
Meaning: interrog. or relative pronoun
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *i̯o- 'that, which' (rel.) (should be kept distinct from *i-)
Altaic: *ŋ[i̯V]
Uralic: FV *jo- 'which'
Kartvelian: Laz. na, Megr. ni, na- 'which (rel.)'; Svan. jä- / ja- 'who'
Dravidian: *jā̆- (NDr *nē)
Eskimo-Aleut: *ca-ŋu-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: Itelm. *'ăŋ-qa 'what'; [Chuk. *ni- 'someone, something' ]
References: ND 1633 *ŋ[U] 'thing, what', 2616 *ya 'who' 2655 *[y]iyo 'which'. The existence of interrog. *jV is in fact quite dubious (despite ND, Altaic certainly has no trace of it, Mong. ja- certainly going back to *ŋia-, and TM forms like Evn. ē̂- - to TM *xia-); IE *i̯o- may well be < *ńo- < *ŋi̯V- (since *i̯- normally < *ń-); the Drav. and Kartv. variation *j- / *n- is also quite suspicious ( < *ŋi̯-?); the only case with *j- is thus FV.

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *i-, *ey-; *yo- (Greek h-)
Meaning: pron. dem./relat.
Old Indian: ayám 'he', idám 'id.', iyám, acc. sg. m. imam ; relat. ya-ḥ
Avestan: īm (= iyǝm) 'sie, ea'; gath ayǝ̄m, jat. aēm 'er'; relat. yō
Other Iranian: OPers acc. m.iyam, imam, f. imām usw.
Old Greek: cypr. ī̆n 'eum, eam', lesb., thess., hom ía 'una'; hó-s 'welcher'
Slavic: *jь, *ī, *ye; *jь-že; -jь (in adj.)
Baltic: *ji-, *jei-, *jī f.
Germanic: *iz 'er', acc, *inan, *ita 'es' usw.
Latin: is, ea, id usw.
Celtic: OIr ē, hē 'er' (< *eis), ed (hed) 'es'
Albanian: e 'eum, eam', dat. i 'ei', i 'eos, eas, u 'eis'
Russ. meaning: мест. указ./относит.
References: WP I 97 ff

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: и́же,
Near etymology: я́же, е́же "который", церк., др.-русск., ст.-слав. иже, же, ѥже ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, стар. чеш. jenž м., jеž ж., ср. р., др.-польск. jiże, jiż.
Further etymology: Содержит и.-е. относит. местоим.; ср. др.-инд. уаs, уā, уаd, др.-перс. уа-, греч. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, фриг. ιος "кото- рый, кто" и част. žе (см. же). Без -же это местоим. представлено в определенном прилаг.: до́брый из *добръ-и и лит. geràsis от gẽras; см. Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 347 и сл. Слав. местоим. *jь, *jа, *jе употребляется также в 3 л. (ср. его́, ему́, кроме им. п. всех родов и чисел, где употребляется он, она́, оно́ и т. д.). Вин. ед. м. р. имеет в др.-русск., ст.-слав. форму и (из *jь); в соединении с предл. вместо нее выступает -н̂ь из -н- от конца некоторых праслав. предл. и *jь: др.-русск., ст.-слав. нань "на него", вънь "в него". В этом знач. *jь, *jа, *jе произошло из и.-е. *i-, ī-; ср. лит. jìs, jì, лат. is, гот. is, д.-в.-н. ir "он", кипр. ἴν "eum, еаm"; таким образом, в слав. совпали указ. и относит. местоим.; см. Бернекер 1, 419; Траутман, ВSW 105 и сл.; Френкель, ВSрr. 82; Вальде--Гофм. I, 720; Бругман, там же; Вондрак, Vgl. Gr. 2, 477 и сл. В русск. народн. языке, возм., иже заменено уже в ХI--ХII в. словом который (Козловский, AfslPh 12, 110 и сл.).
Pages: 2,118-119

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ji-, *jei-, *jī f.
Meaning: he, she
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: jìs, jì 'er, sie'; -is usw. (in adj.)
Old Prussian: pirmann-ien

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 439
Root: e-3, ei-, i-, fem. ī-
English meaning: this, etc. (demonstrative stem); one
German meaning: paradigmatisch verbundene Pronominalstamme `der, er'
General comments: (e, i wohl ursprünglich Demonstrativpartikel). Zu i- gesellt sich der Relativstamm i̯o-. Zusammenfassende Darstellungen bieten bes. Brugmann Dem. 32 ff., BSGW. 60, 41 ff., Grundr. II2 2, 324 ff., Pedersen Pron. dém. 311 ff.
Material: A. Kasuell verwendete Formen:

    ai. ayám `er' = gthav. ауǝ̄m, jav. aēm (nach ahám `ich' erweitertes ar. *ai = idg. *ei; idg. *ei vom St. e-, wie *qʷo-i vom St. kʷo-, nicht Hochstufe zu i-); ai. idám `id' (ohne die sekundäre -am-Erweiterung ai. ít, av. it̃ als hervorhebende Partikel), ai. iyám (erweitert aus *ī-) = av. īm (d. i. iyǝm), apers. iyam `sie, ea', Akk. Sg. m. ai. imám (erweitert aus *im) = apers. imam (darnach f. imām usw.), Gen. m. n. asyá, ásya = av. ahe, fem. ai. asyā́ḥ = av. aiŋ́hā̊, Dat. m. n. asmāí, ásmāi = av. ahmāi, Gen. Pl. m. n. ēšā́m = av. aēšąm, Dat. Abl. Pl. m. ai. ēbhyáḥ = av. aēibyō usw.; gthav. as[-čit̃], ǝ̄ je einmal n. Sg. m.; vom St. ā- Pl. fem. Gen. ai. āsā́m = av. ā́ŋhąm, Dat. Abl. ābhyáḥ = av. ābyō usw.

    Kуpr. ἴν `eum, eam' (scheint auch in μίν, νίν verbaut, s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6081); hierher lesb. thess. hom. ἴα (*ii̯ǝ) `una' (ursprünglich `gerade die, nur die'), hom. ἰη̃ς, ἰῃ̃, danach auch n. hom. ἰῳ̃?; anders Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 588 (*s[m]i̯ās).

    lat. is, id Nom. Sg. m. (alt auch īs, inschr. eis, eis-dem, entweder mit -s ausgestattetes idg. *ei = ai. ay-ám, wie man auch für umbr. er-e und bestimmter für ir. (h)ē `er' eine solche Grundf. *ei-s erwägt, oder Umbildung von is nach eiius, e(i)ī); Akk. altlat. im (= gr. ἴν) und em, gedoppelt emem `eundem' (vom Parallelst. e-?) = Adv. em `tum' und *im in inter-im `unterdessen', in-de `von da', Dat. Abl. Pl. ībus (: ai. ēbhyáḥ); osk. iz-io `is', idic, ídík `id' (das Anhängsel -ík, -ic ist selber das adverbiell erstarrte n. *id + *ke), osk. ís-íd-um `idem' und esídum ds., umbr. er-e `is' ers-e er̆-e `id', umbr. Dat. Sg. esmei, esmik, Gen. Pl. osk. eisun-k, umbr. esom (= ai. ēṣ̌ā́m); daraus wurde ein St. *eiso- außer in Nom.-Akk.-Formen gefolgert, z. B. osk. eizois `iis', umbr. eru-ku `cum eo', doch ist immerhin mit einem alten n. *ed zu rechnen, vgl. lat. ecce `da! sieh da!' (wohl aus *ed-ke) = osk. ekk-um (*ed-ke-um) `item', und vielleicht Akk. mēd, tēd, sēd, wenn aus *, *, * + ed, wenngleich dies nur mehr adverbiell erstarrtes *ed voraussetzt;

    ital. eo-, , im Osk.-Umbr. nur in den Nom. (außer Sg. m. n.) und Akk., im Lat. auf fast alle Casus obliqui ausgedehnt (nur eius aus *esi̯o-s, danach Dat. ei steht abseits), z. B. lat. ea, eam, osk. iúk, ioc `еа', ionc `eum', u. eam `eam', sind von der dem ai. Nom. ay-ám entsprechenden Form *e(i̯)om ausgegangen, die wegen ihres Ausganges -om als Akk. empfunden wurde und eam usw. nach sich zog; iam bei Varro 1.1. 5, 166 und 8, 44 wohl Schreibfehler für eam. - Aus dem Lat. hierher ipse aus *-is-pse (wegen alat. fem. eapse), is-te (aber ille erst danach umgebildetes ollus), vgl. umbr. estu `istum, ista';

    air. ē () `еr' (wohl *ei-s), s. oben; ed (hed) `es' (aus *id-ā = got. ita, womit formell identisch ai. idā `jetzt'; aber lit. tadà `dann' erfordert wegen ostlit. tadù einen Auslaut auf Nasal); Nom. Pl. ē () m. f. n. = mkymr. wy (hwynt-wy) wohl wenigstens zum Teil aus idg. *ei (Näheres bei Thurneysen Gr. 283), Akk. Sg. bret. en `ihn, es' (infigiert), cymr. e (ebenso), ir. -a n- (ebenso), -i (suffigiert hinter Verben; hinter Präp. teils ebenso, z. B. airi aus *ari-en `auf ihn', teils nur mehr als Mouillierung nachwirkend, z. B. foir aus *u̯or-en), Gen. Sg. *esi̯o, f. *esi̯ās `eius', proklit. a, älter z. T. noch e, æ; cymr. *eið- nach dem Vorbild der konjugierten Präpositionen zu mcymr. eidaw, f. eidi differenziert, womit identisch air. a `sein' (len.) und `ihr' (geminierend), cymr. corn. y, bret. e, usw.; über air. betontes āi, āe `eius' und Dat. Pl. -ib s. Thurneysen Gr. 285;

    got. is `er', Akk. in-a, neutr. it-a (s. o.) `es' (dazu neugebildete Pluralformen: got. eis aus *ei̯-es, Akk. ins, Dat. im, ahd. as. im) ahd. er, ir, Akk. in-an, in; n. iz; as. in-a, n. it; anord. Relativpartikel es, er, run. eR; vom St. e-: Gen. Sg. got. m. is, f. izos, ahd. m., f. ira(iru), as. es(is), era(ira); Gen. Pl. got. ize, izo, as. ahd. iro; Dat. Sg. f. got. izai, ahd. (mit anderer Endung) iru; m. n. got. imma, ahd. imu, imo, as. imu; vom St. ī- got. Akk. ija (ahd. sia usw. mit s-Vorschlag nach dem Nom. sī̆), wonach neugebildete Pluralformen, got. Nom. Akk. ijōs (ahd. sio);

    lit. jìs `er', Akk. jį̃ (zum anl. j- s. Brugmann Grundr. II2 2, 331), fem. jì, Akk. ją̃ (jõs, jaĩ usw.);

    aber aksl. Akk. Sg. f. jǫ, Nom. Akk. Pl. f. ję (über die weiteren Kasus s. Brugmann aaO.), Akk. Sg. m. -(j)ь in vidity-jь `videt eum', vъń-ь `in eum' usw. (über weiteres slav. Zubehör, z. B. jakъ `qualis', jelikъ `quantus', s. Berneker 416 f.) eher aus idg. i̯o-;

    nach Pedersen Hitt. 58 f. soll das Pron. -aš `er' usw. ein o im Ablaut zu idg. *esi̯o usw. enthalten (?); vom Stamm i- hat sich vielleicht das n. it `es' in der Verbindung netta `und es dir' (*nu-it-ta) erhalten (Friedrich Heth. Elem. I 27); vgl. hierogl. hitt. is `dieser', Akk. jan.

    B. Relativstamm i̯o-:

    ai. yás, yā́, yád, av. , gr. ὅς, ἥ, ὅ `welcher', phryg. ιος (νι) `wer immer', slav. *i̯a- in i-že, f. ja-že usw., balt. u. slav. in der Bestimmtheitsform des Adjektivs, z. B. lit. geràs-is, apr. pirmann-ien, -in, aksl. dobry-jь (s. Berneker 416 f., Trautmann 105 f.). Zweifelhaftes (lit. jeĩ `wenn', got. jabai `wenn') s. bei Brugmann II2 2, 347 f. (Lit.); Keltisches bei Pedersen KG. II 235, Thurneysen Gr. 323, doch kann cymr. a nicht dazu gehören.

    Komparativ ai. yatará-, av. yatāra-, gr. (kret. gort.) ὅτερος `welcher von beiden'; vgl. ai. yāvat, gr. ἕως, dor. ἇς (*ἁ:Fος) `solange als', ai. yād `insofern, wie' = gr. ὡς `wie'; s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 528, 614 f.

    C. Partikeln und Adverbia:

    Über die adnominale und adverbale Partikel ē̆, ō̆ s. oben S. 280 f.

    e-, ē- Augment (`*dann, damals') ai. a- (auch ā-, z. B. ā-vr̥ṇak), av. a-, arm. e- (z. B. e-lik` = ἔ-λιπε), gr. ἐ- (auch ἠ-, z. B. hom. ἤείδη).

    e- in ai. a-sā́u `jener' (neben av. hāu), a-dáḥ `jenes; dort', a-dyā́, a-dyá `heute' (Stammkompositum?), -ha `sicher, ja';

    arm. e-t`e (neben t`e) `daß, wenn';

    gr. ἐ-χθές, ἐ-κει̃, ἐ-κει̃νος (neben κει̃νος);

    osk. e-tanto, umbr. e-tantu `tanta', osk. päl. e-co `hic', osk. exo- (*e-ke-so) `hic';

    aksl. (j)e-se `еccе' (neben se ds), aruss. ose, russ. é-to `da, dahier', é-tot `der hier, dieser' (neben tot `jener'); serb. bulg. e-to `da' (usw., s. Berneker 259 f);

    unsicherer got. i-bai, i-ba Fragepartikel, ahd. ibu, oba, as. anord. ef `ob' und `wenn', ags. gif, engl. if ds.;

    über *eno- in gr. ἔνη usw. siehe besonderes Stichwort.

    Zu e- auch die Komparativbildung av. atāra- `dieser, der von beiden', ds., alb. ját()rë `anderer', umbr. etro- `anderer', lat. in cēterus `der andere oder übrige', aksl. eterъ, jeterъ `irgendwer', Pl. jeteri(ji) `einige', nsorb. wótery.

    ed (Nom. Akk. Sg. n.): über lat. ecce, mēd s. oben; av. at̃ zur Hervorhebung des vorhergehenden Wortes (wie it_, s. unten; Bartholomae Altiran. Wb. 67); wohl auch in aksl. jed-inъ, -ьпъ `einer' als `*gerade, nur einer'; ob auch ksl. jede, kyjь `quidam' aus gedoppeltem *ed-ed oder nach ide im Ausgang gerichtetem *ed? (Berneker 261, bestritten von Brückner KZ. 45, 302, vgl. MeilletSlave comm.2 444.)

    ēd und ōd (Abl.): ai. āt `darauf; und; (im Nachsatz) so', av. āat̃ `darauf, dann; und; aber; denn', ostlit. ė̃ `und aber' (aksl. i `und' ist eher *ei), lit. `und, aber' = aksl. a `aber'.

    ei (Lok.): gr. εἰ `*so, wenn' (εἶ-τα `dann', εἴ-θε `möchte doch!', ἐπ-εί (vgl. el. ἐπ-ή) `da', ἔπ-ειτα; daneben dial. αἰ, Lok. des f. St. ᾱ, und ἠ Instr. `wenn'; aksl. i `und, auch' (vgl. ti `und' vom St. *to-; von Brückner KZ. 46, 203 dagegen = lit. teĩ gesetzt), got. -ei Relativpartikel (vgl. þei vom St. *to- in gleicher Geltung), z. B. sa-ei `welcher', nach Junker KZ. 43, 348 auch die arm. Abl.-Endung -ē. Siehe auch unten ī-.

    em (alat. em, s. oben S. 282) liegt vor in gr. ἔνθα `da, dahin, damals', rel. `wo, wohin, woher', ἔνθεν `von da, von wo' usw. (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 628); über air. and s. oben S. 37 und vgl. kypr. ἄνδα αὕτη.

    e-tos: ai. -taḥ `von hier' (s. unter eti).

    i: wahrscheinlich im Lok. auf idg. -i; ferner die Grundlage der Komparativbildung *i-tero-: ai. i-tara- `der andere' (neuiran. Entsprechungen bei Bartholomae IF. 38, 26 f.);

    lat. íterum `zum andern, zum zweiten Male'; ferner in ai. i-va `wie' (vgl. oben ἠ-ε `wie'); in gr. ἰ-δέ `und' (vgl. ἠ-δέ).

    i-dha und i-dhe:

    ai. i-há, prākr. idha, av. iδa `hier';

    gr. ἰθαγενής `(*hier geboren', daher:) eingeboren, rechtmäßig geboren' (über ἰθαιγενής s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 448);

    lat. ibī `da, dort' (die Lautentwicklung dh zu f, b nach ubī; im Auslaut nach den Lokativen der o-St. gerichtet), umbr. ife `ibī, еō', ifont `ibīdem' (die ar. und ital. Formen könnten an sich auch -dhe enthalten, vgl. ai. ku-ha = aksl. kъ-de `wo', sь-de `hier' und Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6274);

    mcymr. yd, у ncymr. ydd Verbalpartikel, corn. yz, yth-, bret. ez-? (s. Pedersen KG. II 234, Lewis-Pedersen 243, Thurneysen Gr. 324 f.); dazu auch air. infigiertes -id- aus *id(h)e oder*id(h)i.

    i-t(h)-: ai. itthā́, itthā́d `hier, dort', av. iþā̆ `so', ai. itthám `so' und mit -t- (-tǝ oder-ti?) ai. íti `so'; lat. ita `so', item `ebenso, ebenfalls', umbr. itek `ita', mcymr. Präverb yt-, ncymr. yd-, z. B. in yr yd-wyf `ich bin'; lit. dial. it `durchaus; wie', ìt, ỹt `ganz, sehr', lett. it, itin `recht, eben'.

    ī́ (betont zur Verstärkung eines deiktischen Wortes, unbetont hinter einem relativ gebrauchten Wort):

    ai. ī́ (auch ī́m), av. ī́ hervorhebend nachgestellt, nach Relativ in ved. yad-ī;

    gr. οὑτοσ-ί̄, -ί̄ν (= ai. īm? oder erst jüngere Erw. von -ī́ ?), ἐκεινοσ-ί:, el. το-ΐ;

    umbr. wohl in po-ei `qui' (usw), lat. in utī (aus *uta-ī);

    air. (h)ī deiktische Partikel und Stützpartikel vor Relativsätzen;

    got. -ei Relativpartikel in sa-ei, iz-ei, ik-ei hingegen wohl idg. *ei, s. oben;

    aksl. verstärkend in to-i (s. Berneker 416), aksl. e-i `ja, wahrlich' (? Berneker 296).

    Auch im 1. Gliede von ai. ī-dr̥c̨- `so aussehend, so geartet', lit. ý-pačiai `besonders', y-patùs `einsam, allein, abgesondert, eigentümlich'.

    Zweifelhaft, ob aus idg. *ei oder ī: ags. ī́dæges `desselben Tages', īsiðes `zu gleicher Zeit', īlca (*ī-līca) `derselbe', womit vielleicht anord. ī dag `heute' (obwohl als Präp. ī gefühlt) und die darnach gebildeten ī gǣr `gestern', ī fjǫrð `πέρυσι' zusammenhängen;

    unklar ist āi (Lok. fem. in adverbieller Erstarrung) in ai. āi-šámaḥ adv. `heuer', Bed. `gerade an dém - demselben' wie gr. ἰῳ̃ ἤματι, s. Schulze KZ. 42, 96 = Kl. Schr. 5396, Holthausen KZ. 47, 310, Junker KZ. 43, 438 f., der mit dem ai. Worte auch arm. aižm aus *ai žam vereinigt. Dasselbe *āi in Verbindung mit den Pron.-St. *k̂o-, *to-, *no- enthalten die arm. Demonstrativa ai-s, ai-d, ai-n (Junker ааО.); vgl. Benveniste Origines 129 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 548 f.

    i̯ām (= Akk. Sg. f.): lat. iam `jetzt, bereits, schon', got. ja, ahd. jā̆ `ja'; mit der Endung des Lok. Sg. auf *-ou- der u-Stämme: *i̯ou, *i̯u `schon' (von Kretschmer KZ. 31, 466 dagegen zu *i̯eu- `jung' gestellt) : lit. jaũ `schon', lett. jàu, aksl. ju `schon', schwundstufig got. ahd. as. ags. ju `schon' (die Bildung hätte Vergleichbares an got. þau, þau-h, ags. þea-h, ai. tú `aber' zum St. *to-).

    i̯āi (== Lok. Sg. f.): got. jai `fürwahr', nhd. (jeh), umbr. ie etwa `iam' in ie-pru, ie-pi; aber cymr. ie (zweisilbig) `ja' aus mcymr. ī-ef `dies (ist) es'.

    D. Zusammensetzungen und Ableitungen (soweit nicht oben eingereiht):

    ai. ē-šá, ē-šā́, ē-tát, av. аēšа-, aēta- `der da' (*ei-so, -to-, während arm. aid aus *āi-to-, s. oben; osk. umbr. eiso-, ero- dagegen aus dem Gen. Pl. *eisōm);

    (m)arm. i-sa, i-ta, i-na Demin. aus *ei-k̂o-, -to-, -no- (Junker KZ. 43, 346 f.);

    ai. ē-vá, ē-vá-m `so', wozu mit der Bedeutungs-Entw. `gerade só, gerade dér - nur dér - der allein, der eine';

    av. aēva-, apers. aiva- `ein, einzig, allein', gr. οἶος, kypr. οἶος `allein' (idg. *oiu̯e, *oiu̯os); s. auch oben S. 75.

    oi-nos: ai. ē-na- `er' (kann auch *ei-no- sein);

    arm. -in der Identitätsadverbia andrēn `ebendort', astēn `ebenhier', vielleicht auch der Identitätspronomina so-in `derselbe hier', do-in `derselbe da', no-in `derselbe dort' (`gerade der, ein und derselbe'; *oino-s zunächst zu ēn, noch in der Bedeutung `Gott', d. h. `der eine', und in so-in usw. zu -in geschwächt, Junker KZ. 43, 342; für so-in erwägt er auch *k̂o- + ĕnos); anders Meillet Esquisse 88;

    gr. οἶνος, οἶνη `eins auf dem Würfel';

    lat. ūnus, alt oinos;

    air. ōen `ein'; cymr. bret. corn. un `ein (auch unbestimmter Artikel)';

    got. ains, ahd. ein, anord. einn (hierher gehört altnord. einka `besonders' und weiter ekkja `Witwe', ekkill `Witwer');

    apr. ains (f. ainā) `ein', ablaut. lit. ýnas und ìnas `recht, wirklich'; daneben mit präfig. Partikel (?):

    lit. víenas, lett. viêns `ein' (wegen lit. vičveĩnelis `ganz allein' aus *einos), ablaut. lett. vińš `er' (*vini̯as; vgl. skr. ȉn aus *ēino-); s. Trautmann 3, Endzelin Lett. Gr. 356, 381 f.

    aksl. inъ `unus' und `alius', ino-rogъ `Einhorn', inǫ `in einem fort, immer', inokъ `solus' (= got. ainaha `einzig', lat. ūnicus, anord. einga, ags. ānga, ahd. einac, as. ēnag, nhd. einig), woneben aksl. jed-inъ (zum 1. Glied, wohl idg. *ed, s. oben) `ein', woraus durch Kürzung in längeren Flexionsformen z. B. jednogo (geschrieben jedьnogo), russ. odinъ, odnogo.

    Mit Formans -ko- (wie ai. dviká `aus zweien bestehend') ai. ēka- `unus', ēkatī́ya `der eine', urind. (im hitt. Text) aika-vartana `eine Drehung' (Kretschmer KZ. 55, 93); über lat. ūnicus, got. ainaha, aksl. inokъ s. oben

    Mit Formans -go- got. ainakls `alleinstehend' (auch oben anord. einka usw.), ksl. inogъ `μονίος, γρύψ'; s. Feist 22 f.

    Entsprechende Zusammenrückungen mit e- (z. B. ai. asā́u) und āi- (ai. āišámaḥ, arm. ain usw.) s. oben.

References: WP. I 95 ff., WH. I 368 f., 399 f., 409, 671, 720 ff., 869, Trautmann 3, 65, 72, 105, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 548, 588, 608, 613 f., 628 f., 651.
Pages: 281-286
PIE database: PIE database

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŋ[i̯V]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: what, who (interrog. pronoun)
Russian meaning: что, кто (вопросит. местоим.)
Turkic: *nē
Mongolian: *jaɣu-n-, *jaɣuma
Tungus-Manchu: *ŋǖ
Korean: *nú-
Japanese: *nV̀
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 18, 55, 81, 104, 278 (with literature). Initial *n- in Jpn. is probably due to assimilation to the following nasal (the most usual form is *na-ni); there also exists an interrogative *i- (in *i-ka 'how', *i-n-ture 'which' etc., reflecting nasalless *ŋi-. Vocalism in this archaic monosyllabic pronoun is not quite clear, evidently because of different suffixation.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *nē-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: what
Russian meaning: что
Old Turkic: ne (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: ne (MK, KB)
Turkish: ne, neme
Tatar: ni, nɛrsɛ
Middle Turkic: ne (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: ne
Sary-Yughur: ni
Turkmen: nǟ, nǟmä
Khakassian: nime, ni; `which' (*ne-gu)
Shor: nebe `thing', `what' (*ne-gu)
Oyrat: ne, neme
Halaj: ne
Chuvash: mǝʷn (metathesis < *ne-me)
Yakut: tuox (*suox < *če-gu+ok?)
Dolgan: tuok
Tuva: čǖ (*če-gü), čüve (*čegü-me)
Tofalar: čǖ, čüme
Kirghiz: ne, neme
Kazakh: ne
Noghai: ne
Bashkir: ni, nämä
Balkar: ne
Gagauz: ne
Karaim: ne
Karakalpak: ne, neme
Salar: ne
Kumyk: ne, neme
Comments: The earliest PT form must have contained a unique initial nasal (generally nasals were not allowed word-initially), having yielded specific reflexes in modern languages. See VEWT 352, EDT 774-5, Stachowski 230-231, ЭСТЯ 7, Федотов 1, 356.

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *jaɣu-n-, *jaɣuma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 what 2 thing
Russian meaning: 1 что 2 вещь
Written Mongolian: jaɣu 1, jaɣuma 2 (L 424, 425)
Middle Mongolian: ja'un (HY 803), ja'u(n) (SH), jān (IM) 1, jan 1, jamă 2 (MA)
Khalkha: 1, jū̆m 2
Buriat: jū, jūn- 1, jǖmen 2
Kalmuck: jun, jūn- 1, jū̆mṇ 2
Ordos: 1, jumu 2
Dongxian: jan 1
Baoan: jaŋ 1
Dagur: 1, jū̆m 2 (Тод. Даг. 147, MD 172)
Shary-Yoghur: ima 2, jān 1
Monguor: jān 1, jama 2, (j)amar 'comment' (SM 5, 487)
Mogol: jem(ä) 1; ZM īmä (16-3a) 2
Comments: KW 221, MGCD 742.

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ŋǖ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: who
Russian meaning: кто
Evenki: ŋī,
Even: ńī, ŋī
Negidal: nī, ŋī
Spoken Manchu: (2895)
Literary Manchu: we
Ulcha: ŋui, ui
Orok: ŋui
Nanai: ui
Oroch: ńī
Solon: nīxẽ
Comments: ТМС 1, 660-661.

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nú-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: who
Russian meaning: кто
Modern Korean: nu-gu
Middle Korean: nú-
Comments: Nam 114, KED 356.

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *nV̀
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: what
Russian meaning: что
Old Japanese: nani
Middle Japanese: nàní
Tokyo: náni
Kyoto: nàni
Kagoshima: náí
Nase: nú
Shuri: nū́
Hateruma: nū́
Yonakuni: nū́
Comments: JLTT 493.

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *jā̆-
Meaning : [interrogative base]
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *jā-/*e-
Proto-Telugu :
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ē-, *e-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *jamb-
Proto-North Dravidian : *n-ē
Brahui : d-ē(r)

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *jā-/*e-
Meaning : [interrogative base]
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yā, yāvai
Tamil meaning : what or which things
Tamil derivates : yāvum, yāvaiyum all, whole; yāvatu, yātu what; how; yāvatum even a little; yāvan_ which man; yāvaḷ, yāraḷ which woman; yār, yāvar, ār, āvar what persons; yārum any or everybody; yāvarum each and every person; yāvaṇ, yāŋkaṇ, yāṇṭai where; yāŋku id., how; yāṇṭu where; when; ētu which, what; why; whence; how; ētum even a little; anything, everything; ēvan_ who (masc. sg.); ēvatum everything; ēn_ why, what, how; e- interrogative base; pref. before a noun, meaning 'what, which' [e before consonant, evv before vowel]; evan_, evaḷ, evarkaḷ, etu, ev/evai which man, which woman, which persons, which thing, which things; adj. enta; evarum, evvarum everyone; evvelām whatever; evv-evar whatsoever persons; evv-evai whatsoever things; eŋkaṇ, eŋkittai, eŋku, eŋkē, etōḷ, etōḷi where; eŋkaṇum, eŋkum everywhere; eŋŋan_, eŋŋan_am, eŋŋan_ē, evaṇ, en_n_aṇam how; where; eññān_r_um always; ettan_ai how many, how much; ettuṇai, evvaḷavu how much; ettum by all means; entu how; what; eppaṭi, evvatu, evvār_u how; e-ppoẓutu, e-ppōẓtu, e-ppōtu when; e-ppoẓutum, e-ppōtum always; emparum everywhere; emmai which birth, what worlds; evan_, en_r_iya how, why; er_r_ai when; en_ why; en_r_u, en_r_aikku when, what day; en_r_um, en_r_aikkum, er_r_aikkum forever; en_n_a, en_n_atu, en_n_ai what; en_n_atum, en_um even a little; en_n_um id., all; en_n_en_n_a whatever; en_n_ar who (pl.); en_n_avan_, en_n_an_ what (kind of) man; en_n_ukku why; en_ai what, why; all; en_n_ōrum persons of whatever kind, all persons; en_aittum all, the whole; en_aivar whatever persons; en_aivan what person
Malayalam : yāvan/ēvan, yāvaḷ/ēvaḷ, yāvar/ēvar/yār/ār
Malayalam meaning : who (masc. sg., fem. sg., pl.)
Malayalam derivates : yā/yātu/ētu/ēn, ēva what (sg., pl.); e, ē what; eŋŋu where; eŋŋum, eŋŋānum anywhere; eŋŋanē how; ettira, etra how much, how many; entu what; why; ennu what day, when; ennum, ennekkum always; e-ppur_am what side; e-ppōḷ when; eppērum everyone
Kannada : yā-, ā-, ē-, e-
Kannada meaning : interrogative base
Kannada derivates : , yāva, ā, āva, dāva, ē, e what, which; yār, ār, dāru who (pl.); yāvanu, āvaṃ, āve which man; yāvaḷu, āvaḷ which woman; āvudu what, which; pl. āvuvu; yāke, yātake, yātakke, ētake, ēke why; ēn what; pl. ēvu; etta which or what place or direction, to or in which etc., where; ettam wheresoever; enitu, enittu, enisu, entuṭu, eṣṭu, ēṭu, ēsu how much, how many; enta, entā, entha, enthā, entaha, enna what kind or sort; entu how; entum by all or any means; endu when; endum always; enne what time; elli what place, where, whither; ehage, ehaŋge, eheŋge, eŋge, heŋge, hēge, hēŋge, hyāge, hyāŋge in what manner; how
Kodagu : ārɨ (dat. ākɨ, gen. āḍa), dārɨ
Kodagu meaning : who (sg., pl.)
Kodagu derivates : ennɨ what; ēvëN, ēva, ēvu, ēdɨ which man, which woman, which persons, which thing or things; adj. ē; elli where; elliñji whence; ettɨ, ettaṭṭi, eppara to which side; ettiñji from which direction; ēle by which way; ekka when; ekkatiñji since when; ekkākaṇe until when; ekkalē just when; ekkalū, ekkōlū always; endɨ which day; endū always; eccë, eccakɨ how many; ennatë, entë of what kind; ennane, ētaratɨ in what manner; ennatāŋgɨ for what purpose; ēnaŋguṇḍɨ on account of what; ennaŋgɨ why
Tulu : ērụ, ēraṇe
Tulu meaning : who
Tulu derivates : , dānè, jānè, dāva, dādavu, , ovu what, which; dāye why; ēni, ēpa, ēpo when; ētụ how much, how many; ētoḷu how often; eñca how; eñci what sort of; eñcitti such as what; ōḷu, oḷpa where; oḍe whither; oñci whence; (B-K) ōpe which side; ōpetāyé which man
Proto-Nilgiri : *e-, *ej-
Miscellaneous : IRU dāru who
Number in DED : 5151

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *e-, *ej-
Meaning : interrogative base
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : evn, evḷ, evr, ed/edn/ēd/en "which man, which woman, which persons, which thing or things"
Toda : ēɵ (obl. personal ēn-), pl. ēɵām "which person or thing"
Additional forms : Also Kota adj. e (before consonant), ey (before vowel); ey, ēd where; eyk whither; eytr whence; eyōn, eyōḷ, eyōr, eyd man, woman, persons, thing or things of or from what place; ejn whence; et_ which direction; et_āk a little in which direction; eyakd, et_akd somewhere (one doesn't know where); etervī in which neighbourhood; el, ēllk when; elōn, elōḷ, elōr, eld man, woman, etc., at what time; enm like what; entk to what extent; entgō numerous; enā, enenā such as what; ennm how, in what manner; entā how great; ēpāṭy so big as what; ental how many; very much, very big, more; enmūṛ like what; eŋ gey- to do what; end_ what day; end_ end_km forever; Toda adj. ē (before consonant), ēy (before vowel); ēɵɨd because of what; ēɵɨdm because of any of these things; et_ in which direction; et_m in any direction; et_ɨk a little in which direction; et_s_n, es_n whence; ēl where; ēnk to what place; ēnār_ by what road, towards where; ēfaxm always; ēd_, (in song also) ed_ why; ed_ on what day; etfok, etfɨn when; et how many; etk how much; etks_ at what distance; etōf such as what; egy what manner, how; however much; e(g) gɨs doing in what way, how; e(g) gɨsem somehow; es_ ɨn- to say how or what
Notes : It is not quite clear whether the correspondence "Kota e - Toda ē" can in any way reflect PSDR *jā- (*ja-) or if the length of the vowel in Toda (or its shortness in Kota) is secondary.
Number in DED : 5151

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu :
Meaning : adj. which
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : ē
Number in DED : 5151

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ē-, *e-
Meaning : [interrogative base]
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : em/emd/ēn/ēnd, ēr, ed, edav "who/which man, which men, which woman or thing, which women or things"
Naikri : ēn, ēr, ēd, ēv "who (masc., pl., fem., fem. pl.)"
Naiki : ēn (obl. ēr-), ēd "who (masc.), which/who (fem./neut.)"
Parji : ēd (obl. ēr-) "who"
Ollari Gadba : ēynḍ, ēyr "who (sg.), who (pl.)"
Salur Gadba : eyir "who (pl.)"
Additional forms : Also Kolami adj. ē (rarely used); ēv which women; Parji adj. āro which; Gadba_S3 eyiṇ which man; eyir which men; ēdi which thing, animal, woman; pl. ēvi
Number in DED : 5151

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *jamb-
Meaning : who, what (interr. base)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *bōR
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *jam-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *jamb-

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *bōR
Meaning : who, which man
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : bōl/bōr
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : bōr (obl. bōn-)
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : bōr (obl. bōn-)
Gommu Gondi : bōru
Maria Gondi : bōr̨
Seoni Gondi : bōru
Koya Gondi : benonḍ
Maria Gondi (Mitchell) : bor, benon, benor
Number in DED : 5151
Number in CVOTGD : 2651

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *jam-
Meaning : interrogative base
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : ime "where"
Manda : amnan "who (masc. sg.)"
Additional Forms : Also Pengo imenakan a man belonging to where; imeni (attrib.); imṇakan who; fem. imṇakadel; imṇi what (attrib.); Manda fem. amdel, neut. amdi, masc. pl. amnar, neut. pl. amne
Number in DED : 5151

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *jamb-
Meaning : interr. base
Kui : imbai, embai "who (sg. or pl. masc. or fem.)"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : ambasi, ambari, ambay, amba'i "who (masc. sg., pl., fem. sg., pl.)"
Kuwi (Schulze) : imba'asi, imba'ari, imbai, imbaɨ/imbaari "which man, which men, which woman or thing, which women or things"
Additional forms : Also Kui embe, imbe where; bāi who (< imbai); Kuwi_F imin what kind; imbi, imbi'a where; Kuwi_S imbinaɨ which thing, which things; adj. for all genders imbini; imbia where
Notes : One of two examples on PK *y-, this interrogative pronoun in PK had the meaning 'who', opposed to *yān- 'what' and *ec- 'which, how many'. Lost everywhere, the initial *y-, however, left serious traces everywhere, since in Kui it left the variants i- and e-, while in Kuwi_F *ya- > a- before the following -a- and > i- before the following -i-.
Number in DED : 5151

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *n-ē
Meaning : interr. base
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : nē "who (sg.)"
Malto : nēreh "who/which man"
Notes : One of the three NDR interrogative bases, serving for masc. and fem. forms of the pronoun 'what'; see also *ek-, *endr-.
Additional forms : Also KUR nē nē who; MLT nērith/nēth, nērer which man, woman, thing.
Number in DED : 5151

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : d-ē(r)
Meaning : who (sg. or pl.)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 5151

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *ca-ŋu- (-ra, -na)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. "what", "what to do"
Russian meaning: вопр. мест. "что", "что делать"
Proto-Yupik: *ca-ŋu-ra (-na), *ca-
Proto-Inupik: *cu-na, cu-a, *cu-(r-)
Comments: Cf. PCh *šǝn, *šeq- id. < KCh *'nǝ-qǝ.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *ca-ŋú-ra (-na), *ca-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. what 1, why 2, what to do 3
Russian Meaning: вопр. мест. что 1, почему, зачем 2, что делать 3
Sirenik: saŋǝ̄́ca (saŋǝ́cij pl., sam rel., sáŋǝn instr.) 1, saŋā́mi 2, sacǝ́qǝχtǝ́χ 3
Chaplino: saŋwá (saŋwat, sāt pl., sam rel.) 1, saŋámi 2
Naukan: súná (sat pl., sam, saɣ rel.) 1, sími, sáŋʁanun, sámǝŋ 2, sanāqa, sāqa 3
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: cacaq, ca- 1, cin 2, ca- 3
Chugach (Birket-Smith): caca 1, cacaq 'thing'
Central Alaskan Yupik: ca- (cat pl., cam rel.) 1, cīn 2, ca- 3, castun 'how'
Nunivak (Peripheral): tcauna* 1, tcaʎʎiox* 3, caluni 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *cu-na, cu-a, *cu-(r-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. what 1, why 2, what to do 3
Russian meaning: вопр. мест. что 1, почему, зачем 2, что делать 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: suna (sut pl., sum rel.), suami 2, su- 3
SPI Dialects: Imaq súna (sutkō pl., sum rel.) 1, sōmi 2, súraʁā 3, W suna*, sua* 1
North Alaskan Inupik: suna (sut pl., sum rel.) 1, su- 3
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl suna*, sua* 1, Qaw, Mal sua 1
Western Canadian Inupik: suna 1, su- 3
WCI Dialects: Cor x́una*, hu(n)a*, M su(n)a*, Cop hunat pl. 1, Sig sut pl. 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: suna, sua (sunait pl.) 1, su- 3
Greenlandic Inupik: suna (sūt pl., sūm rel.), so*, suna* 1, su- 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'nǝ-qǝ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вопр. местоимение что
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *šeq, *šǝn-
Proto-Itelmen: *'ăŋqa
Comments: Ср. камч. *sa-q 'что за, какой' (479).

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *šǝn, *šeq-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вопрос. мест. "что"
Chukchee: rʔɛnut sg., rʔɛnutet pl., rʔɛ́-, rɛ́q-
Koryak: jǝ̀nnǝ, jeq- (I), jǝn-
Palan: tǝ̀nnǝ/e, taq- (I)
Alutor: tinɣa, taq-

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'ăŋqa
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): мест. вопр. что
Itelmen: 'ăŋqa
Itelmen meaning: что (чем, каким образом; почему, зачем; зачем, для чего) 1, что-то 2, столько 3
South Itelmen: nakoj (skizɨzkik) 1, 'ańka-zkak 2
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): quid (olet) 1, ideerat, defuit 2
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): co (pachnie) 1, nie byɫ, nie byɫo 2

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *nVw
Meaning: what, who
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *nVw
Austroasiatic meaning: who
Proto-Austronesian: *anu
Austronesian meaning: what

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *nVw
Meaning: who
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: *naw
Khmer: khǝ
Proto-Monic: *nǝw
Proto-Khmu: *nVh

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *naw
Meaning: who
Presyllable: # / Q-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *naw
Proto-East Katuic: *naw / *nuo
References: P-528; TK7.2

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic: *naw
Meaning: who
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: naw.L
Bru Van Keu meaning: who
So: naw.B
So meaning: (TL)
Bru: nʌw.B
Bru meaning: who
Kui: naw.B
Kui meaning: who
Kuay: naw.N
Kuay meaning: it/he/she
Ngeu: naw.N
Ngeu meaning: it/he/she

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *naw / *nuo
Meaning: who
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: nǝ=naw
Pakoh meaning: who, whoever

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: khǝṇao
Meaning: who
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology

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Monic etymology :

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Proto-Monic: *nǝw
Meaning: Locative case marker
Presyllable: pǝ-/bǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Modern Mon: pnaw, pnow
Nyakur: phǝnɔw.B
Nyakur meaning: where
References: N272

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