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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : d-ā
Meaning : this
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 1

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *a-/*ā
Meaning : that (over there)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *a
Proto-Telugu :
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *a-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *a-
Proto-North Dravidian :
Brahui : d-ā
Notes : In the North Dravidian database cf. also *ā-r, *ā-s, *ā-d, etc. (Additional derivative entries are also available in Telugu and other databases). For Brahui see DEDR 1. // Present in 6/6 branches.

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *a
Meaning : that
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : a
Tamil meaning : demonstr. base expr. the remoter person or thing; pref. to nouns, expr. remoteness [a before consonant, avv before vowel]
Malayalam : a, ā
Malayalam meaning : that, yonder
Kannada : a-
Kannada meaning : remote demonstrative base
Kodagu : avën, ava, avu/aeŋga, adɨ
Kodagu meaning : that man, that woman, those persons, that thing/those things
Tulu : āye, āḷụ, ārụ/ākulụ, avu (obl. ay-), aykuḷu
Tulu meaning : that man, that woman, those persons, that thing, those things
Proto-Nilgiri : *a
Number in DED : 0001

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *a
Meaning : demonstrative adjective
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : a (before consonant), ay (before vowel)
Toda : a (before consonant), ay (before vowel)
Additional forms : Also Kota ay that place, there; ayk to that place; aytr from that place; ayōn, ayōl, ayōr, ayd that man, woman, etc.; ajn thence; at_ that direction; at_āk a little in that direction; at_ltr from that direction; at_ē go! (pl. at_ēm); atervī in that neighbourhood; adejn from that time on; al that time; alk at that time; alōn, alōḷ, alōr, ald that previous man, woman, etc.; alīk to that previous place; alā lo there!; anm (obl. ant-) like that, that fashion, that amount; antk to that extent; anān/anōn, anōḷ, anōr, and such an important man, woman, etc. as that; anā, ananā adj. such and such (as that); antā adj. so great; āpāṭy so big as that; antal so many as that; anmūṛ like that; sexual organs; anmūṛōn man like that, etc.; aŋ gey- to have intercourse with; and_ that day; amnēr two days before yesterday; Toda aɵɨd because of that, therefore; at_ in that direction; at_ɨk a little in that direction; al in that place, there; at_s_n, as_n from that direction; ad_ on that day; atfok then; at that many; that much; atton just/only that much, in that same way; atk that much; atks_ at that distance; atatk only so much as that; atōf such as that; a/g/ gɨs in that manner; as_ ɨn- to say like that; ānk to that place; ānār_ towards there, by that road; ātoṭ that bank; a mun that side, the other side; a mun nōṛ the world of the dead
Notes : In many Toda forms we should expect o, but the preservation of a throughout is either due to analogy with those stems where it should have been preserved (e.g. l-stems) or due to the frequency of this pronominal stem in general.
Number in DED : 1

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu :
Meaning : adj. that
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : ā
Number in DED : 1

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *a-
Meaning : that
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : am/amd, avr, ad, adav "that man, those men, that woman or thing, those women or things"
Naikri : avnd, avr, ad, adav "that man, those men, that woman or thing, those women or things"
Naiki : ōn, ōr, ad, anda "that man, those men, that woman or thing, those women or things"
Parji : ōd (obl. ōn-), ōr, ad, av "that man, those men, that woman or thing, those women or things"
Ollari Gadba : ōnḍ, ōr, ad, av "that man, those men, that woman or thing, those women or things"
Salur Gadba : ōnḍ, ōr "he, they"
Additional forms : Also Kolami adj. (rarely used) ā; Naikri adj. ā; Parji adj. ā; Ollari adj. ā, āy
Notes : The inflected forms are as follows: *avnd_ (masc. sg.), *avr (masc. pl.), *ad (fem. sg.). As for the fem./neut. pl. form, external data shows *av to be most archaic. The form adav has obviously developed by analogy with ad; as for Naiki anda, it is unclear.
Number in DED : 1

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *a-
Meaning : that (over there)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *ō-nR (pl. *ō-ṛ)
Konda : vānr_u (obl. vani-)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *a-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *a/*ā
Notes : This deictic base had the following declineable forms in PGn: *aw-ant_[-u] (whence Gondi *ōn-R, Konda vānr_u with a metathese, etc.) 'that man', plural *aw-ar[-u] 'those men'; fem. *a-d-i (PK *ādi by analogy with masculine forms), plural *a-v-i. Also reconstructed for the PGn level is *a-c- 'that many, that much' (PG, PPM, PK); *a-tal 'that side' (Konda, PK, possibly Gondi); *a-mb-/*a-b- 'there' (Konda, PPM, PK). An enormous number of derivatives has been formed independently in different languages (which is characteristic of all deictic bases).

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *ō-nR (pl. *ō-ṛ)
Meaning : he, that man
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : ōr/ōl (obl. ōn-), pl. ōṛ/ōṛk "he, that man, those men"
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : ōr (pl. -k) "he, that man, those men"
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : ōr (pl. -k) "he, that man, those men"
Maria Gondi : ōr̨ (pl. ōr) "he, that man, those men"
Koya Gondi : ōnḍu
Chindwara Gondi : ōl
Number in DED : 1
Number in CVOTGD : 441

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : vānr_u (obl. vani-)
Meaning: that man
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda vār/u/ (obl. vari-), adi (obl. dani-), avi (obl. vanka-) those men, that woman or thing, those women or things; akan, akar, akad, akeŋ id.; atal (obl. ataR-) that side; ataR/i/ of that side; ataRaṇḍ from that side; abe/bān (obl. abeṇ-/bāṇ-) there; abeṇi/bāṇi of that place, belonging to that place; abekan man belonging there; āR/u/ in that way, so, thus; aya adj. that; ayakan that man, etc.; (Sova dialect) aniga there; ako distant; distance; (Sova dialect) akoṇḍ distant; nani that sort of; nanikan such a man, etc.; nanu one (woman or thing) like that; naso that much, that big; nasoṇḍar that many men; nasoṛ/nasoṇḍ that many women or things; nasok id., such big ones
Number in DED : 1

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *a-
Meaning : that man, those men, that woman, those women, that thing, those things
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : avan/aven/havan, avar, adel/hadel, avek, adi/adaŋ, avaŋ
Additional Forms : Also Pengo adj. ā, āy, anda; andel that woman; andaŋ that thing; andaliŋ for that, for that reason; acaka, ace, acek that big, so big; anṭaŋ, anṭiŋ in that direction; anṭiŋtan, anṭiŋdan from that direction; ani over there; aneŋ thus, in that way; abe, habe, ambe there; aleŋ thus, in that way; ? anay much (? that much)
Number in DED : 1

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *a/*ā
Meaning : that (remote)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : a- "that over there"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : ā "that most remote"
Notes : There are four main deictic stems in PK: *a-, *i-, *e-, *u-. Of these, *i- is the simplest of all: it is preserved in all the main sources of data (that is, Kui, Kuwi_F and Kuwi_S) and always means 'this'. As for the other ones, all three were preserved in Kui where they seem to retain their original functions: e- as 'that nearer', a- as 'that further' and o- (from *u-) as 'that at the greatest distance'. In Kuwi_F *e- was lost, and the other two shifted meanings: u- 'that intermediate', a- 'that farthest'. In Kuwi_S, instead, *a- was lost, but the other two forms were left intact.
Number in DED : 1

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian :
Meaning : that
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : ā
Malto : ā
Number in DED : 1

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔa (*ʔe)
Meaning: that, this (prob. *Ha that, *He this)
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *e-n-, *o-n- (also *e- in Hitt. and IIr.)
Altaic: *é (perhaps *a / *e mixed)
Uralic: *a- (in UEW together with *o ~ *u), *e-
Kartvelian: *ha- (also *e-)
Dravidian: *a-/*ā
Eskimo-Aleut: *aɣǝ-
References: ND 751 *ha, 752 *h[e].

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *en-, *on-
Meaning: pron. dem.: that; (an)other
Hittite: anni- 'jener' (Tischler 29-30), eni- 'das betreffende' (Tischler 106-107)
Tokharian: anni- 'jener' (Tischler 29-30), eni- 'das betreffende' (Tischler 106-107)
Old Indian: instr. anéna, anáyā, du. gen., loc. anayoḥ
Avestan: gen. du. anayɔ̄, pl. instr. anāiš
Other Iranian: OPers instr. anā
Armenian: -n Artikel, na 'jener, der dort', no-in 'derselbe dort', a-n-d 'dort', ai-n 'jener'
Old Greek: kẹ̄̂no-, ekẹ̄̂no- 'jener', dor. tē̂no- 'jener', pl. énioi̯ 'einige'
Slavic: *onъ
Baltic: *an-a- adj.
Germanic: *ina-, *jina-, *jaina-
Other Italic: Umbr enom 'tum'
References: WP II 336 f

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: он,
Near etymology: она́, оно́, во вре́мя о́но, укр. вiн, вона́, воно́, блр. ён, яна́, яно́ (начало слова подверглось влиянию его́, ему́), др.-русск., ст.-слав. онъ, она, оно αὑτός, ου῏τος, ὁ, ἡ, τό, ἐκεῖνος, др.-русск. оно "ессе", болг. он, она́, оно́, сербохорв. о̏н (о̑н), о̀на, о̀но, словен. òn, óna, оnо̑ (óno), чеш., слвц., польск. оn, оnа, оnо, в.-луж. wón, wоnа, wоnо, н.-луж. wón, wóna, wóno. Ср. также о́ный.
Further etymology: Родственно др.-лит. anàs, лит. аñs "тот, он", вост.-лит. ãnas "он", anà "она", др.-инд., авест. аnа- "этот", арм. -n "тот", греч. ἔνη "последний день месяца; послеß завтрашний день", возм., "тот (день)", ион.-атт. ἐκεῖνος "тот" (из *ἐκεῖ-ενος), д.-в.-н., в.-н. ёnеr "тот", далее др.-инд. аnуás "другой", греч. ἔνιοι "некоторые"; см. Мейе, МSL 8, 237; Мейе--Эрну 551; Траутман, ВSW 7 и сл.; Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 335 и сл.; 339; МU 6, 357; IF 28, 356 и сл.; Гофман, Gr. Wb. 82 и сл.; Сольмсен, KZ 31, 472 и сл.; Перссон, IF 2, 199; Кречмер, Konj. 25. Сюда же такие табуистические употребления, как он "черт", она́ "болезнь, лнхорадка"; см. Зеленин, Табу 2, 64, 91 и сл.; Хаверс, 90 и сл., 111.
Pages: 3,140-141

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *an-a- adj.
Meaning: that
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: anà-, añ- 'jener'
Old Prussian: tāns 'er', f. tennā 'sie'

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *ina-, *jina-, *jaina-
Meaning: pron. dem.
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: jains
Old Norse: inn, -inn
Old English: geon
English: dial., arch. yon
Middle Dutch: gēne, gōne, guene, geune
Dutch: gene
Middle Low German: jēne
Old High German: jenēr, genēr (9.Jh.), enēr (um 1000)
Middle High German: jener, ener
German: jener

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 486
Root: eno- (wohl e-no-): ono- : no- : -ne-
English meaning: that
German meaning: Pronominalstamm `jener'
Material: Ai. Instr. anḗna, anáyā `diesem, dieser', Gen. Lok. Du. anáyōḥ; anā `denu, gewiß'; av. Gen. Du. anayā̊, Instr. ana (apers. anā), Pl. anāiš; über ai. anyá- `anderer', ántara- ds., das manche hierher stellen, vgl. oben S. 37;

    arm. so-in `derselbe', wenn aus *k̂o-eno-s, Junker KZ. 43, 343; gr. ἔνη (sc. ἡμέρα) `der übermorgige Tag', (ἐ-)κει̃νος `jener', dor. τη̃νος ds. (*κε-, *τε-ενος), ὁ δει̃να `der und der, ein gewisser' (nach ταδει̃να = *τάδε ἔνα `dieses und jenes'); über ἔνιοι `einige' (aus *en-io-?) vgl. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6144;

    lat. enim altlat. `fürwahr', später `denn, nämlich' = osk. íním, inim `et' (das - in Proklise aus e), umbr. ene, enem `tum' neben eno(m), ennom usw. ds.;

    idg. *oni̯o-, mit - (wohl vom Rel. *i̯o-) in ahd. ienēr, obd. ener, mhd. geiner (= jeiner), ags. geon, got. jains `jener' statt *janjis durch Einfluß von ains; anord. enn, inn `der', mit k̂о-: hinn `jener', hānn, hann `er' (*kēnos);

    lit. añs, anàs `jener', žem. `er'; apr. tāns `er' (*t-anas: *to);

    aksl. usw. onъ (ona, ono) `jener, er', serb.-ksl. onakъ `von jener Art' (= lit. anõks ds.);

    über hitt. an-ni-iš (annis) `jener', Adverb an-na-az (annaz), an-ni-ša-an `einst', vgl.Pedersen Hitt. 63, Couvreur H̯ 91 f.

    no-, in:

    ai. nā-nā `so oder so';

    arm. -n Artikel, na `dann' (*no-ai, Meillet Esquisse2 88), a-n-d `dort' (d aus idg. t; also nicht gleich air. and `hier', oben S. 37, wozu noch kypr. ἄνδα αὕτη, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 613);

    gr. νη̃ς τὸ ἔνης, dor. να̃ς Hes.; νή `fürwahr', Instr. (= lat. ds.), ναί, ναίχι ds. (vgl.αἰ : ἠ `wenn', δαί : δή `also');

    lat. nam `denn, nämlich' (Akk. Sg. f), nem-pe `denn doch', nem-ut ds.; `fürwahr', Instrumental;

    unsicher ob slav. *nā, Interjektion russ. na `da hast du!' usw. hierher gehört.

    Unsicher ist auch, ob die folgenden Partikeln hierher gehören:

    ne in:

    ai. ná `gleichsam, wie';

    av. yaɵ-na `und zwar';

    gr thess. ὅνε, τόνε, τάνε, mit Doppelflexion Gen. Sg. τοι̃νεος usw. `ὅδε';

    lat. ego-ne, tū-ne, dēnique (*dē-ne-que), dōnicum, dōnec (*dō-ne-kʷom, vgl. umbr. arnipo `quoad' aus *ad-ne-kʷom), quandō-ne, sīn (*-ne `wenn aber doch'), usw.; auch -ne in der Frage;

    ahd. (ne weist tu) na `(nescis)-ne';

    alit. ne `wie', lit. nè, nègi, nègu `als' (nach Komparativen), néi wie' (*ne-i), lett. ne `als';

    akls. neže, skr. nȅgo `als' nach Komparativen; aruss. ni ds., poln. ni `wie' (*ne-i).


    ai. ví-nā `ohne';

    av. yaɵa-nā̆ `gerade wie', ciɵǝ-nā zur Einleitung einer Frage (= lat. quid-ne);

    über gr. ἐγώνη, das auch ἐγω-νη sein könnte, s. unter ē, ō; νή s. S. 320;

    lat. `fürwahr' s. oben S. 320;

    got. -na in afta-na Adv. `von hinten', hinda-na Adv. `jenseits', usw.; ahd. -na in oba-na `von oben her'; anord. þēr-na `tibimet', usw.;

    abg. vъ-ně `draußen';

    fern bleibt wohl phryg. νι `und' (in ιος νι `und wer'); über toch. A -ne in kus-ne `welcher', vgl. Couvreur (Tochaarse Klank- en Vormleer 50); s. auch Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 612;

References: WP. II 336 f., WH. I 339 f., 370 f., 386 f., 404 f., Trautmann 7 f., 195, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 606, 612, Specht Dekl. 306.
Pages: 319-321
PIE database: PIE database

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *é
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: that (deictic root)
Russian meaning: тот (дейктическая основа)
Turkic: *ạ(-n)
Mongolian: *e-ne
Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Korean: *ā-mò
Japanese: *á-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 111-112, 277; EAS 126, KW 122, АПиПЯЯ 56, 292, Doerfer MT 21, Rozycki 70.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ạn-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that (obl.cases) 2 here, look (part.)
Russian meaning: тот (основа косв. падежей) 2 вот, тут
Old Turkic: an-ta (loc.), aŋ-ar (dat.) (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: an-da (loc.), oŋ-a (dat.) (MK, KB)
Tatar: an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.), an-ar (dat.) (Mish.)
Middle Turkic: an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.) (Babur)
Sary-Yughur: a (nom.)
Turkmen: ana 2
Khakassian: an-da (loc.), a-ɣaa (dat.)
Shor: an-da (loc.), a-(ɣ)a (dat.)
Oyrat: an-da (loc.), o-(ɣ)o (dat.)
Halaj: ä́rä 'that side' (vocalism under influence of bä́rä 'this side')
Chuvash: on-da (loc.), ъʷn-a (dat.)
Yakut: ana-rā 2
Tuva: ɨn-da (loc.), a(ŋ)-a (dat.)
Tofalar: ɨn-da (loc.), a(ŋ)-a (dat.)
Kirghiz: an-ta (loc.), a-(ɣ)a (dat.)
Bashkir: an-ta, an-da (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.)
Balkar: an-da (loc.), aŋ-ɣa (dat.)
Karaim: an-da (loc.), an-ar (dat.)
Salar: an-dɨ (loc.), aŋ-a (dat.)
Comments: VEWT 19, EDT 165, ЭСТЯ 1, 147-150, 157. In OT and most modern languages the root a(n)- acts as an oblique stem for ol 'that' (as well as a deriving stem for pronominal adverbs). Only in SUygh. a- is the direct stem.

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *e-ne
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: this
Russian meaning: этот
Written Mongolian: ene (L 316)
Middle Mongolian: ene (SH, HYt), enɛ (IM), inä̆ (MA)
Khalkha: ene
Buriat: ene
Kalmuck: enǝ
Ordos: ene
Dongxian: ene
Baoan: ene, ine
Dagur: ene (Тод. Даг. 139)
Shary-Yoghur: ene
Monguor: ne
Mogol: enä; ZM ena (13-6a)
Comments: KW 122, MGCD 262.

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *e-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: this
Russian meaning: этот
Evenki: er, eri
Even: er
Negidal: ej
Spoken Manchu: erǝ (2881)
Literary Manchu: ere
Jurchen: e(r)se (854)
Ulcha: ej
Orok: eri
Nanai: ei
Oroch: ei
Udighe: eji
Solon: er
Comments: ТМС 2, 460-462.

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *ā-mò
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: someone, some
Russian meaning: кто-то, некоторый
Modern Korean: āmu
Middle Korean: āmò (cf. also ǝ̀nɨ́ 'some, someone', àrắm 'oneself')
Comments: Nam 337, KED 1072.

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *á-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: that
Russian meaning: тот
Middle Japanese: a-
Tokyo: à-re, à-no
Kyoto: áre
Nase: á-Ǹ
Shuri: á-nù
Comments: JLTT 376.

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 126
Proto: *e
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: this
German meaning: dieser, -e, -es
Finnish: e-ttä 'daß' ( > Saam. N âttĕ, L ahte), e-ll- 'wenn, wofern', e-nsi- (ente-) 'erst, der erste'
Estonian: e-t 'daß, damit, um zu', e-mb-kumb 'welcher von beiden, einer von beiden', i-ga 'jeder'
Mordovian: e-t́e, pl. e-ńe (E) 'dieser', e-śe (pl. e-śne) (E) 'jener', e-sa (M) 'da, dort', e-sta (M) 'von dannen, dann'
Udmurt (Votyak): e-če, i-če 'solch', ǝ̑če (K) 'solcher (wie jener)', ị̑če (G)
Komi (Zyrian): etaje̮ (S), etaja (V), eta (P), e.ta (PO), pl. 'dieser', esija (Lu.), esije̮, esija (V) 'dieser (Lu.), jener, der dort (V)', e-če̮m (Lu.), ečče̮m (P) 'ein solcher'
Khanty (Ostyak): i-t 'dieser, der', i-di 'so', i-n (V DN) 'jetzt', ĭ-n (Kaz.) 'eben, sofort', i-t (V) 'jetzt', ĭ-t (Sy.) 'eins; der, jener', i-t (I) 'eins', ĕ-j (V DN), ĭ (Kaz.) 'ein'
Mansi (Vogul): i-ń (TJ) 'jetzt', iń-kar (TČ) 'er', ań (So.) 'jetzt; dieser, der'
Hungarian: ez, e 'dieser, der', eddig 'bis hierher, bisher', ëgy 'eins, ein', emez 'dieser', ezën 'dieser', i-de 'her, daher; hier', í-gy 'so', i-ly 'solcher', i-tt 'hier, da'
Enets (Yen): e-ke, e-ko 'dieser hier', e-lei, e-loi 'solch einer', i-nō 'dieser da'
Kamass: i-dǝ- 'dieser, da, der (dort)'
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Fin. että 'daß' > Lapp. N âttĕ, L ahte. In all the corresponding subdatabase records, the meanings given in the field 'Meaning' are not supposed to describe concrete semantics of the original protolanguage stems (< Ur. */e-/) themselves and/or of their immediate reflexes, but appertain to different derivative forms attested in the daughter languages.
Yukaghir parallels: Juk. - ?
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; EtSz; TESz; MSzFgrE; DEWO 4, 15; Collinder IUrSprg. 56

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ha-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: этот
English meaning: this
Georgian: а- (Old Georg. ha-)
Megrel: a-
Svan: a-
Laz: ha, a
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 41; EWK 576. Универсальная дейктическая основа; налицо как в ностратических языках (см. ОСНЯ 1, 257-258, ностр. *ʔa), так и в СК (НЦЕД 486 *hă, 218 *ʔŏ).

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *aɣǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: that, on the other side, across
Russian meaning: вон тот, на той стороне
Proto-Yupik: *áɣǝ-na (-kurǝ, -rumǝ, -ani)
Proto-Inupik: *aɣ-na (*ak-kua, *aɣ-ruma, *a(ɣ)-ani)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 453

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *áɣǝ- (-kurǝ, -rumǝ, -ani)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: that, over there, on the other side, across
Russian Meaning: вон тот, на той стороне
Sirenik: áɣ-nā (ax-kǝra pl., aɣ-cǝma rel., aɣǝ́ni loc., aɣā predic.)
Chaplino: āxun*, āɣ-na (āx-kut pl., aɣ-úm rel., aɣ-áni loc., aɣá predic.)
Naukan: āɣ-na, áɣ-na (áx-kut pl., ām rel., aɣáni loc.)
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: aɣ-na (ax-kut pl., aɣɣum rel., āɣani loc., āɣa predic.)
Central Alaskan Yupik: aɣ-na (ax-kut pl., aɣɣum rel., aɣāni loc., aɣā-i predic.)
Nunivak (Peripheral): aɣ-na (ax-kut pl., aɣɣum rel., aɣāni loc., aɣā-i predic.)
Norton Sound (Peripheral): aɣ-na (ax-kut pl., aɣɣum rel., aɣāni loc., aɣā-i predic.)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 453

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *aɣ-na (*ak-kua, *aɣ-ruma, *a(ɣ)-ani)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: that, on the other side, across
Russian meaning: вон тот, на той стороне
Seward Peninsula Inupik: aŋ-na (akkua pl., ak-tuma rel., āni loc. (in East), aɣɣā predic.)
SPI Dialects: KI aɣ-ruma rel.
North Alaskan Inupik: aɣ-na (akkua pl., ak-tuma rel., āni loc., aɣɣa predic.)
Western Canadian Inupik: aŋ-na (akkuat pl., axxuma rel., aɣani loc., aɣɣa predic.)
WCI Dialects: Sig aɣ-juma rel.
Eastern Canadian Inupik: an-na (akkua pl., atsuma rel., [avani loc., avva predic.])
ECI Dialects: Lab āni loc. (in South)
Greenlandic Inupik: an-na (akku(a) pl., aššuma rel., [avani loc., affa predic.]) (in North)
GRI Dialects: NG aŋ-na, EG an-na (in South)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 453, 456

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HV
Meaning : that, this
Eurasiatic : *ʔa (*ʔe)
Afroasiatic : *ha- (Sem., Om., Berb.)
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔ[a]
Austric : MY *a that
Amerind (misc.) : *ha 'that' (R 739) [+ A K]
African (misc.) : Macro-Khoisan *Ha.
Reference : ND 751, 752.

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔ[a]
Meaning: demonstrative stem
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʔŏ that (cf. also *ha- id.)
Sino-Tibetan: *ʔa / *ha-
Basque: *ha, *ha-u(r)
Comments and references : HGC 22, NSC 64 *ʔa.

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔŏ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that (demonstrative pronoun)
Proto-Nakh: *ʔo
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔa
Proto-West Caucasian: *a
Notes: This demonstrative stem is mostly used for far deixis ("that") as opposed to *ha- (q.v.) for near deixis or emphatic deixis. We must note, however, that in many modern languages it is extremely complicated to make a clear-cut distinction between the reflexes of these two pronominal morphemes.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 274; Абдоков 1983, 140.


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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʔo
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that
Batsbi: o
Comments: Isolated within Nakh, but obviously an archaic pronoun stem.

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative pronoun
Lezghian: a, a-m
Kryz: ä-m, ä-d
Budukh: ad
Archi: e-mi-
Comment: This pronoun stem is normally used in compounds (in Arch. e-mi-k 'there', e-mi-ši '(towards) there' probably an assimilative vowel fronting < *ʔa-mi-); separate usage attested only in Lezg. a 'that'. Cf. also Rut. a-r-baj, Tsakh. a-d 'inside'. See Алексеев 1985, 75.

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a demonstrative stem
Abkhaz: a-
Abaza: a-
Adyghe: ā
Kabardian: ā
Ubykh: a-
Comments: PAT *a- 'definite article', *a- in *a-rǝjǝ 'this', *a-nǝjǝ 'that' (Abkh., Abaz. ari, ani). In PAK the root was used independently (*a 'that', 'this'); in Ub. it is also used as a definite article (as in PAT) and within complex pronoun stems (a-j-da 'that' etc.).

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʔa
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: demonstrative pronoun
Lushai: hei this
Lepcha: a this
Kiranti: *ʔà-
Comments: Cf. also: Karen *ʔV, Idu a, Tani *ʔV, Konyak *ʔa, Manipuri a-du, Sichuan *ʔa 'that, this'. Some languages reflect a variation of ʔ- (0-) / and emphatic h- (besides Lushai, cf. Sulung *hV-, Aka *hVŋ, Konyak *ha-, Mikir ha-la, Magar ho-se, Kham hō), but there seems to be no reason for reconstructing two different pronouns.

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ʔà-
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: he
Tulung: oram (AS aram) this (also o this)
Kaling: am
Limbu: a-tiN
Dumi: ɨm
Kulung: ǝ-
Yamphu: akko
Comments: Cf. also adverbial stems like Dum. ádzǝ 'at that time, once', Lim. anchē id. etc.

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: atiN
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: pro.
Meaning: 1) someone, some; 2) which.

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: ɨm
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: pro.
Meaning: he, she (human).

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: ǝnpa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: adv.
Meaning: here, in here (further, but at same level).

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: akko
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: demons.pron.
Meaning: that, that one, he, she; akkosäʔ ; akkoeʔ ; akkweʔ ergative/instrumental; akkoji non-singular independent form; akkha plural dependent form; akkhaji plural independent form
Comments: akko ayu ham.beʔ khä (that today where.LOC go.NP.ISF) Where is he going to today? nammiʔ akkh.a sokkoŋ (daughter-in-law that.PLNR earring batter.DAT.PF.о3.FCT.ISF) He got those earrings forged for our daughter-in-law. khw.eʔ akkh.a.ji peʔlo kha i:tt.u.ji. (s/he.ERG that.PLNR.NS much thing teach.о3.3NS) He told them many things.
Nepali: tyo, tī, tinīharū

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ha, *ha-u(r)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this (near deictic)
Bizkaian: au
Gipuzkoan: au
High Navarrese: au, (Elkano) gau
Low Navarrese: hau, haur
Salazarese: kau
Lapurdian: hau
Baztanese: au
Aezkoan: gau
Zuberoan: hau(r)
Roncalese: kau(r)

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