Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *čil̂- vb. intr. (1), *čil̃-t-a- adj.
Meaning: warm
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: šìlti (šį̃la, žem. šìlsta, šìlō) 'warm werden, sich werden'; (Lyberis) šil̃tas (4) 'теплый'
Lettish: sil̃t (sil̃stu, silu) 'warm werden', sìlts 'warm'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

Search within this database


Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *k'al(w)e- / -e-, *k(')lēw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: warm, hot
Baltic: *čil̂- vb. intr. (1), *čil̃-t-a- adj.
Germanic: *xal-ō- vb.; *xlēw-(i)a- adj., *xliw-ja- adj., *xliw-ja- n., *xlēw-an-ō- vb., *xlū-m-a-/*xliu-m-a- adj., etc.
Latin: calēre `warm, heiss sein, glühen', calidus, -a `warm, heiss', calor, -ōris m. `Wärme, Hitze'
Celtic: Cymr clyd `warm', MIr clithe `apricis'
Russ. meaning: теплый, горячий
References: WP I 429 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Germanic: *xalōn-; *xlēw(i)a-, *xliwja-, *xliwja-n, *xlēwanōn- vb., *xlūma-/*xliuma- etc.
Meaning: warm
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hlǟ-r `milde, warm', hlāna wk. `lauer, milde werden'; hlāka f. `Tauwetter'; hlǖ-r `warm, milde', hlǖ n. `Schutz, Wärme'
Norwegian: lä adj.; lü adj.; dial. lüa `milde Luft'
Old Swedish: lior adj.
Swedish: ljum `mild, lau'; lü adj.; dial. lü `geschützter Ort'
Old Danish: laa adj.
Danish: lum, lummer `mild, lau'; lü adj.; lü `geschützter Ort'
Old English: hlēow `warm, sonnig'
Old Saxon: halōian `brennen'
Middle Dutch: laeu
Dutch: lauw
Middle Low German: la(u)w
Old High German: lāo `lau, mild' (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: lā (-w-), lǟwe, lāw, lāb adj. 'lau, milde'
German: lau; bair. läunen `tauen'; schweiz. lūm `mild (vom Wetter)'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

Search within this database


Pokorny's dictionary :

Search within this database
Number: 887
Root: k̂el-1
English meaning: cold; warm
German meaning: 1. `frieren, kalt', 2. `warm' (Bedeutungsvermittlungs wohl `brennend')
Material: 1. Ai. śiśira- `kühl, kalt', m. `kühle Zeit, Kälte', av. sarǝta- `kalt', npers. sard ds., osset. sald `Kälte', av. sarǝ-δā- `Kälte bringend';

    aisl. hēla `Reif (hi-hlōn-, vgl. ai. śi-śira-); ndl. hal n. `gefrorener Boden', mit Dehnstufe ē ahd. hāli `schlüpfrig, glatt', nhd. bair. hāl, schweiz. hǟl ds., ags. hǣlig `unzuverlässig', aisl. hāll `glatt, listig';

    lit. šąlù, šálti `frieren' (lett. sal̂t), šáltas `kalt' (lett. sal̂ts), šalnà `Reif (lett. sal̂na), pãšalas `gefrorene Erde' = apr. passalis `Frost', lit. pašolỹs `Nachtfrost, Frost in der Erde';

    abg. slana `Reif'.

    2. Ai. śarád- f. `Herbst', mit Zahlwörtern `Jahr', av. sarǝδ- f. `Jahr' (s. auch Solmsen KZ. 34, 78 zu lyd. σαρδις `Jahr'), osset. särd `Sommer', npers. sāl `Jahr' (`Herbst' als `warmeZeit', ebenso lit. šilus `August', richtiger šilius);

    lat. caleō, -ēre `warm, heiß sein, glühen', calidus `warm, heiß', calor `Wärme, Hitze';

    cymr. clyd (*k̂l̥-to-) `warm, wärmend' (: lit. šil̃tas); dazu vielleicht von einer ei̯-Erweiterung cymr. claear `lauwarm', bret. klouar ds.?

    As. halōian `brennen'; im Germ. wurde eine Erweiterung *k̂leu- frachtbar: ahd. lāo, flect.lāwēr `lau', aisl. hlǣr ds., vom Wetter (*hlēwia-), hlāna `mild werden', bair. läunen `tauen', aisl. hlāka `Tauwetter': aisl. hlȳr `lau', hlȳ n. `Wärme', ags. hlēowe `lau', aisl. hlē (*hlēwa-) n. `Schutz, Leeseite', as. hleo m. `Schutz vor dem Wetter', afries. hlī, ags. hlēo, hlēow n. `Obdach, Decke, Schutz' (vgl. auch mhd. liewe, lie f. `Laube', schweiz. `geschützte Lage, Sonnenseite', schwed. lya `Höhle von Tieren'); norw. dän. lum, lummer `mild, lau', schwed. ljum ds., schweiz. lūm `mild, vom Wetter' u. dgl., ndd. luk, holl. leuk `lau'.

    lit. šylù, šilaũ, šìlti `warm werden'; šil̃tas `warm' (: cymr. clyd).

References: WP. I 429 f., WH. I 137, Trautmann 297 f., 304 f.
Pages: 551-552
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: */ḳ/alV
Meaning: to burn
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *k(')al(u̯)-, *k(')lēu-
Altaic: *k`i̯āla ( ~ -ĺ-)
Dravidian: *kāḷ- (or *koḷ- 1868) [cf. also *gwVlV)
References: МССНЯ 341, ОСНЯ 1, 332-333. ND 1040 *ḲEy(a)ḷa 'burn' (+ Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯āla ( ~ -ĺ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: hot, ashes
Russian meaning: горячий, зола, уголья
Mongolian: *kala-
Tungus-Manchu: *xial-
Comments: SKE 162, ОСНЯ 1, 333. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *kala-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to heat
Russian meaning: нагревать(ся)
Written Mongolian: qala- (L 916)
Middle Mongolian: qala'un 'hot, warm' (HY 6, SH), qalaūn id. (IM), qalun (LH)
Khalkha: xala-
Buriat: xalā- 1 (xala- 'обжигаться') xalū(n) 2
Kalmuck: xalǝ-
Ordos: xala-
Dongxian: qalun 'warm'
Baoan: χalGǝ-, χalǝ-; χoloŋ 'warm'
Dagur: xale- 1 (MD 155) xolō-; xalla- 1, (Тод. Даг. 173) xala- 1, xalōn 2
Shary-Yoghur: χalū-dGa-, χalū-ra-
Monguor: xala- (SM 151); xaloŋ (SM 152) 'warm', xarmaʒ́a- < WMong. qalamača- 'ressentir une forte chaleur, avoir la fièvre' (SM 164)
Mogol: qalɔn 'warm' (Weiers)
Comments: KW 162, MGCD 237, 318, 319. Mong. > Chag. qala-, Tel. qala- 'to make fire, kindle' (VEWT 224, ЭСТЯ 5, 228, Лексика 364); > Man. xala- etc. (Poppe 1966, 192, Doerfer MT 144).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xial-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 coal 2 black
Russian meaning: 1 уголь 2 черный
Evenki: ē̂lla 1
Even: ǟlrъ 1
Negidal: ē̂la 1
Spoken Manchu: jačiŋ 2 (2427)
Literary Manchu: jačin 2, jaχa 1
Jurchen: hia-xa (66) 1
Ulcha: sē̂lta 1
Orok: sē̂lta 1
Nanai: sịalta 1
Oroch: (i)jakta 1
Udighe: jalaha 1
Solon: ilgẽ, ilči 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 289-290. Man. > Dag. jāga 'coal' (Тод. Даг. 146).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dravidian : *kāḷ-
Meaning : to burn
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kāḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *kāl-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kāḷ-
Brahui : kalūṛ (?)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-bra,

Search within this database


South Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-South Dravidian : *kāḷ-
Meaning : to burn
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malayalam : kāḷuka
Malayalam meaning : to burn, flame
Malayalam derivates : kāḷal high flame, love-fever
Number in DED : 1500
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-dednum,

Search within this database


Telugu etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Telugu : *kāl-
Meaning : to burn, be burnt, scalded, scorched, baked
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kālu
Additional forms : Also kālupu burning, setting on fire, baking, roasting; kālcu to burn (tr.), set fire to, scald, singe, scorch, char, bake
Number in DED : 1500
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

Search within this database


Kolami-Gadba etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kāḷ-
Meaning : to smart
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : kāl-
Number in DED : 1500
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-dednum,

Search within this database


Brahui etymology :

Search within this database
Brahui : kalūṛ
Meaning : ashes
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Additional forms : Bray 155.
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-addition,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : dry, burn
Eurasiatic : *gwVlV (cf. also */ḳ/alV)
Afroasiatic : *ḳVl-
Sino-Caucasian : *QwVɫV
Amerind (misc.) : *q̇ʷala 'cook, burn' (R 148) [+ A K]; *kʷali 'sun; light; kindle' (R 704)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳVl-
Meaning: be hot, burn
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ḳVlVw- 'roast'
Egyptian: Copt krōm, Fay klōm
Central Chadic: *kwal- 'hotness'
Notes: Cf. Eg. ḳrr (pyr) 'burn (pots)' (see *ḳar- 'burn; fire')
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-notes,

Search within this database


Semitic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 805
Proto-Semitic: *ḳVlVw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'roast'
Akkadian: qalû
Mandaic Aramaic: ḳla 'burn'
Arabic: qlw [-i-, -u-]
Notes: Based on *ḳVl-
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-notes,

Search within this database


Central Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-CChadic: *kwal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'hotness'
Bachama: kwulkwul [Kr: N 306], kulkul [Sk]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-bch,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *QwVɫV
Meaning: to burn, boil
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *kōɫ (~ g-, q-, G-, -ū-)
Burushaski: *ɣol-
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

Search within this database


Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kōɫ (~ g-, q-, G-, -ū-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: boil
Chinese: *kūnʔ seethe, boil.
Tibetan: skol (p., f. bskol) to boil (tr.), ãkhol (p. khol) be boiled.
Comments: Cf. also OCh. 涫 *kʷāns to bubble. Bod. 137; Coblin 49.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-comments,

Search within this database


Chinese characters :

Search within this database
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: gǔn
Preclassic Old Chinese: kūnʔ
Classic Old Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Western Han Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Eastern Han Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Early Postclassic Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Late Postclassic Chinese: kwǝ̄́n
Middle Chinese: kón
English meaning : seethe, boil
Russian meaning[s]: 1) клокотать, бурлить; быстро катиться (о волнах); 2) кипеть; кипящий, крутой; 3) вертеться, крутиться; скатиться; разг. выкатиться, убраться вон; 4) жарг. увильнуть (от уплаты)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 85
Four-angle index: 5745
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,

Search within this database


Chinese Dialects :

Search within this database
Number: 1839
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 臻合一上混見
ZIHUI: 3340 2183
Beijing: kuǝn 2
Jinan: kuẽ 2
Xi'an: kuẽ 2
Taiyuan: kuŋ 2
Hankou: kuǝn 2
Chengdu: kuǝn 2
Yangzhou: kuǝn 2
Suzhou: kuǝn 2
Wenzhou: kaŋ 21
Changsha: kuǝn 2
Shuangfeng: kuǝn 2
Nanchang: kun 2
Meixian: kun 2
Guangzhou: kuan 21
Xiamen: kun 2
Chaozhou: kuŋ 21
Fuzhou: kouŋ 2
Shanghai: kuǝŋ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: kuǝn 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

Search within this database


Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *ɣol-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: burn
Yasin: ɣol-, ɣul- intr., -s-qul- tr.
Hunza: ɣulú-
Nagar: ɣulú-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
5464072646074
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov