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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ergh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to shake, to move, to anger, to be angry
Old Indian: ŕ̥ghā f. `violence, passion', r̥ghāyati `to be passionate, rave, rage'
Avestan: {ǝrǝghant}
Old Greek: orkhéō `tanzen machen', orkhéomai̯ `tanzen'
Germanic: *arg-a-, *arg-i- adj.
Russ. meaning: трясти, двигать(ся), злить(ся)
References: WP I 147 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *arga-, *argi-
Meaning: weak, timid
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: { aragan `traag' }
Old Norse: arg-r `feige, unmänlich; unsittlich', rag-r `feig; weiblich'
Norwegian: arg
Old Swedish: argher, ragher
Swedish: arg `böse'
Danish: arg `böse'
Old English: earg (earh) `inert, weak, timid, cowardly; evil, wretched, vile'
Old Frisian: erg `slecht, kwad, erg'
Middle Dutch: arch, erch `kwaad, waardeloos'
Dutch: erg
Middle Low German: arch, arich `slecht'; arch `Böses, Unheil, Bosheit, Schaden'
Old High German: arg `(moralisch) verderbt, sclecht, böse; feige, unzüchtig, geizig' (8.Jh.); arg n. `das (moralisch) Schlechte, Böse, Verworfenheit, Schlechtigheit' (8.Jh.); Langob arga `nichtswürdiger Faulenzer' (Paul. Diac.)
Middle High German: arc `arg, nichtswürdig, schlechtböse'; arc (-g-) st. n. 'böses, übel'
German: arg; Arg n.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 514
Root: ergh-
English meaning: to shake, tremble
German meaning: `schütteln, erregen, beben' od. dgl.
General comments: wohl Erweiterung von er- `in Bewegung setzen'.
Material: Ai. r̥ghāyáti `bebt, tost, stürmt';

    gr. ὀρχέω `πάλλω, κινέω', meist ὀρχέομαι `tanze, hüpfe, springe, bebe'.

    Wegen der in er-3 ebenfalls vorliegenden Bed. `ἔρις' u. dgl. können dazu in Beziehung stehen:

    av. ǝrǝɣant- `arg, abscheulich';

    ahd. ar(a)g `feig, träge, böse, arg', ags. earg ds., aisl. argr und mit Metathese ragr `unmännlich, wollüstig, schlecht';

    lit. aržùs `lüstern, sinnlich'.

References: WP. I 147 f.
Pages: 339
PIE database: PIE database
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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *jVkV
Meaning: ice, cold
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *i̯eǵ-
Uralic: *jäkšV (cf. also *jakša )
Dravidian: *ēk-
References: ND 2625 *yäka 'ice, cold' (+ Om.).
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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 167
Proto: *jäkšV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: cool, cold
German meaning: kühl, kalt; kühl, kalt werden
Finnish: jähty- 'erkalten, kalt, abgekühlt werden', jäähty- 'sich abkühlen'
Saam (Lapp): iksem, jiksem (N) 'frigidus', jieksō- (L) 'kühler, kälter werden (vom Wetter)', jeuhsas 'kalt und windig', jeuhsos 'kühl, frisch', jik͕̄sem (T) 'kalt'
Mordovian: ekše (E), jäšä, äšä (M) 'kühl; Schatten; das hinter gelegene', ekšse (E) 'hinter'
Mari (Cheremis): ükše- (KB), d́ükše- (U), jükše- (B) 'kalt werden', üštǝ (KB), d́üštö (U) 'kalt; Kälte', jüštö (B) 'kalt; Frost'
Khanty (Ostyak): jöɣli (V) 'kalt; Kälte', jȧ̆ɣлi (Trj.) id., jȧ̆ɣtǝ (DT) 'etwas kalt, kühl', jĭлĭ 'kühl; Kühle'
Addenda: Kar. jähtü-; Veps. jäuhtu-
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; DEWO 341; Collinder Comp. Cr. 64, 104, 169, 411
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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ēk-
Meaning : to cool down
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-North Dravidian : *ēq-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-ndr,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *ēq-
Meaning : to cool down
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : ēxnā (īxyas) "to lose heat, cool down, lose the heat of excitement or passion"
Malto : ēg̣e "to become cool, be healed"
Additional forms : Also KUR ēxrnā (heat of day) abates; ēxtaʔānā to cool (tr.); MLT ēg̣tre to make cool.
Number in DED : 875
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVKV
Meaning : ice, cold
Eurasiatic : *jVkV
Afroasiatic : *'Vk(Vk) ?
Sino-Caucasian : *=HĭGĀ́
Reference : Suggested by V. Glumov.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=HĭGĀ́
Meaning: ice; to freeze
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=HĭGĀ
Sino-Tibetan: *Kja(j)H
Yenisseian: *qo (~χ-)
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=HĭGĀ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to freeze, get cold, be benumbed
Proto-Nakh: *ʁōr
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iʁ-
Proto-Lak: =aI=q:i-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔiqIä-
Proto-Khinalug: q:i
Proto-West Caucasian: *q:ǝ
Notes: PN and Khin. have preserved only nominal derivates of the root; in PL and Lak. it still functions as a verb. The vocalic reconstruction is not quite certain because of reduction in PN (in a suffixed derivate) and pharyngealization. The EC-WC comparison seems both phonetically and semantically reasonable. See Абдоков 1983, 175.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ʁōr
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 cold (n.) 2 freeze
Chechen: ʁōr-ō 2
Batsbi: ʁor 1
Comments: 4th class in Bacb. Cf. also Bacb. ʁor-ĩ 'cold as ice', ʁor-dar 'freeze'. Historically this is a verbal root with a suffixed -r. A trace of the vocalized stem *-aʁ- is probably present in the compound Chech. ʕin-daʁ, Ing. ʕin-darʁa 'shadow'.
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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=iʁ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to get cold, freeze
Andian language: =eʁ-eš-
Chamalal: =eʁ-aʎ-
Comments: Cf. also Cham. Gig. =eʁ-ič- (the root *-iʁ- is attested only within compound verbs).
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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =aI=q:i-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grow cold; catch cold
Lak form: =aI=q:i-
Comments: Pret. =aI=q:u-nu. Cf. also the derivates: daIrq:u (gen. daIq:i-l) 'cold; rheumatism', daIirq:u-s:a 'cold' (adj.).
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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʡiqIä-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 get cold 2 cold 3 to go out, be extinguished
Lezghian: el-üq-iz 3
Tabasaran: aqIu 2,-abqIub1
Agul: d-aqIa-s 1
Rutul: s-a-qIa-s 3
Tsakhur: ḳ́a-aqIa-s 3
Budukh: ʕatχa 2
Archi: χIe-t:ut 2
Comment: Cf. also Arch. a=χIa-s (dur. =arχIu-r) 'to be extinguished, go out'. A verbal stem, belonging to the strong verb class in PL. Most forms reflect the Ablaut grade *ä (*ʡäqIa-); the grade *-i- is preserved in Arch. χIe- ( < *ʔiqIä- 'cold'.

    Most Lezghian languages have derived from this root words for 'shadow': Lezg. qen (Khl. äqIän), Tab. Düb. d-aqIin (Kand. d-aqIun 'mountain shadow'), Ag. aqI (Bursh. d-aqI), Rut. aqI / aqIan, Tsakh. aqI, Arch. ejχIurt.

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: q:i
North Caucasian etymology: 21
Meaning: cold
Khinalug form: q:i
Comments: Cf. also q:ä-wil id.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q:ǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be benumbed,dumbfounded (by cold,surprise etc.)
Adyghe: q:ǝ-n
Kabardian: q:ǝ-n
Ubykh: q(ǝ)-
Comments: PAK *q:ǝ- (see Kuipers 64); Ub. sǝ-qǝ́-n. In Shapsugh the verb also means 'to harden' (which may be a contamination with another WC root, *q:ʷa q.v.).
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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Kja(j)H
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thick (of fluids), congealed
Chinese: 脂 *kij fat (?)
Tibetan: ãkhja(s)-pa to freeze, congeal; ska thick (of fluids)).
Burmese: kjaʔ strong (of tea).
Kachin: lǝgji3 be frozen, be stiff, numb, (H) ge, gje to thicken, as juice; be congealed.
Comments: Burm. khajh congealed, frozen may belong here, too (although it has merged with the reflex of *ghǝ̆l q.v.). [Two roots should be distinguished].
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zhī
Preclassic Old Chinese: kij
Classic Old Chinese: kij
Western Han Chinese: kjǝj
Eastern Han Chinese: kjǝj
Early Postclassic Chinese: kjij
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kjij
Late Postclassic Chinese: kji
Middle Chinese: ći
English meaning : fat, grease
Russian meaning[s]: 1) сало, жир; жирный; 2) помада; крем; румяна; 3) прекрасный
Comments: Attested already in Shijing, but absent in Schüssler's dictionary.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 130
Four-angle index: 1582
Karlgren code: 0552 g
Jianchuan Bai: ci4
Dali Bai: ci5
Bijiang Bai: čer4
Shijing occurrences: 39.3, 57.2_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1041
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三平脂章
ZIHUI: 5176 0443
Beijing: c̣î_ 11
Jinan: c̣î_ 11
Xi'an: ci_ 11
Taiyuan: ci_ 2
Hankou: ci_ 2
Chengdu: ci_ 11
Yangzhou: ci_ 11
Suzhou: cü 11
Wenzhou: ci_ 11
Changsha: c̣î_ 11
Shuangfeng: c̣î_ 11
Nanchang: ci_ 2
Meixian: ci_ 11
Guangzhou: či 11
Xiamen: ci XH
Chaozhou: ci 11
Fuzhou: cie 11
Shanghai: ci_ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: či 1
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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *qo (~χ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ice
Ket:
Yug:
Comments: ССЕ 260. Werner 2, 126 <*qogǝ>. Kott. ušōx 'ice' is hardly comparable with the Ket form (see under *čǝG-), and Ket qɔgdɔ 'to break ice' hardly justifies a reconstruction *qogǝ: it is rather a compound of qo + k...dɔ 'to clear the way" (or perhaps a component = Yug k-duk 'to break').
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