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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ŋwElV
Meaning: to be afraid
Altaic: *ŋēlu 'страх, бояться'
Uralic: ? *nolV
Dravidian: *veḷ- [if not to *belHi 27]
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ŋḕlu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fright, be afraid
Russian meaning: страх, бояться
Turkic: *jAl-
Tungus-Manchu: *ŋēle-
Korean: *nōr-ra-
Japanese: *ùrà-m-
Comments: Menges 1984, 279-280 (Kor.-TM). Despite Doerfer MT 21, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong. gelme- (which, despite Poppe 25 and АПиПЯЯ 18, is probably unrelated at all).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jAl-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be afraid 2 to suspect, slander 3 slander
Russian meaning: 1 бояться 2 подозревать, клеветать 3 клевета
Old Turkic: jala 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jala- 2, jala 3 (MK)
Turkish: jɨl- 1, Osm. jal-
Tatar: jala 3
Middle Turkic: jala 3 (MKypch. - CCum.)
Oyrat: d'ala 'fine, charge'
Yakut: jula 3
Kirghiz: ǯala 3, ǯala- 2
Kazakh: žala 3
Noghai: jala 3
Bashkir: jala 3
Karakalpak: žala 3
Comments: VEWT 200, EDT 918-919, ЭСТЯ 4, 87, Федотов 2, 483.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ŋēle-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be scared, frightened
Russian meaning: бояться, пугаться
Evenki: ŋēle-
Even: ŋēl-
Negidal: ŋēle-
Spoken Manchu: gelǝ- (1886)
Literary Manchu: gele-
Ulcha: ŋele-
Orok: ŋēle-
Nanai: ŋele-
Oroch: ŋēle-
Udighe: ŋele-
Solon: nēle-
Comments: ТМС 1, 667-669.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nōr-ra-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: be startled, frightened, terrified
Russian meaning: пугаться
Modern Korean: nolla-
Middle Korean: nōrrá-
Comments: Liu 158, KED 348.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ùrà-m-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to resent, regret
Russian meaning: обижаться, сожалеть
Old Japanese: uramu-
Middle Japanese: ùràm-
Tokyo: urám-
Kyoto: úrám-
Kagoshima: ùràm-
Comments: JLTT 779. Cf. also *ùriàp-, OJ urep- 'to grieve'.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1449
Proto: *nolV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: lazy
German meaning: faul
Finnish: nolo 'verdutzt, verblüfft; Faulenzer' ?
Mordovian: nola (M) 'faul, (MoRS) лентяй' ?
Addenda: Kar. nolo 'faul; niedergeschlagen, traurig'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-mrd,uralet-add,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *veḷ-
Meaning : to be ashamed, afraid
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *veḷk-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *veḷk-
Meaning : ashamed; afraid
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : veḷku (veḷki-)
Tamil meaning : to be ashamed, be coy, bashful, fear, shudder, be perplexed
Tamil derivates : veṭku (veṭki-) to be ashamed, be bashful, be afraid; veṭkam, vekkam shame, modesty, bashfulness, coyness; vaṭku (vaṭki-) to be ashamed, be shy, bashful; n. shame, shyness, modesty; viḷi (-v-, -nt-) to be overcome with shame; viḷivu shame
Malayalam : veḷkka
Malayalam meaning : to be ashamed, afraid
Malayalam derivates : vekkam shame
Kannada : beḷkar_
Kannada meaning : to become afraid, fear
Kannada derivates : (K2) beḷkane to turn pale through fear
Tulu : boḷcuni
Tulu meaning : to shy, start aside suddenly as an animal
Tulu derivates : boḷci, boḷcelụ shyness, starting aside, suddenly; boḷcāvuni to make shy; boḷaccelụ shying
Proto-Nilgiri : *ve(ḷ)k-
Notes : Tamil vaṭku and viḷi are unclear.
Number in DED : 5500
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ve(ḷ)k-
Meaning : feeling of modesty, shame
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : vekm (obl. vekt-)
Number in DED : 5500
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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