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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳV
Meaning: who, what
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kʷi-, *kʷe-, *kʷo-, *kʷu-
Altaic: *k`a(j)
Uralic: *ku- ~ ko-; also *ke (*ki)
Eskimo-Aleut: *ki-na (*kiR-kur, *kira-m)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *m-kǝ- who
References: ND 981 *Ḳo 'who' (cf. also 1235 *ḳuya 'manner'?)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-esk,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kʷi-, *kʷe-, *kʷo-, *kʷu-
Meaning: pron. interrog.
Hittite: kwi-s, kwi-t 'wer, was' (Tischler 611 ff)
Tokharian: B kā `why'; A kus, B kŭse 'who' (Adams 149, 186 f)
Old Indian: ka-s, f. kā 'who?'; pron. indef.; kim 'what?', náki-ḥ 'noone', cit (cid) `generalization particle'
Avestan: kō, gath. gen. kahyā, čahyā, f. kā 'wer? welcher?', kā 'wie?'; čit_ Verallgemeinerungspartikel; čiš 'wer', cī 'wie'
Other Iranian: OPers čiy Verallgemeinerungspartikel
Armenian: in-č 'etwas'
Old Greek: *kʷi-s, *kʷi(-t); *kʷó-then, *kʷôi̯ etc.; Argiv tístis
Slavic: *kъ-to, *čь-to, *kъ, *kā
Baltic: *ka-
Germanic: { *xwa-s 'wer', etc.; Got hʷilīks, OE hwilc 'wie bescgaffen', OE hwī, hwiu, OIsl hvī 'wie, wozu, warum', usw. }
Latin: quī, quae, quod; quis, quid, usw.; quisquis
Other Italic: Osk púí, paí, púd; Osk pis, píd 'quis, quid', Umbr sve-pi-s 'si quiis', pis-i 'quis, quisquis'; Osk pispis
Celtic: { Ir cia (< *kʷei), OIr ; OInd cid 'was? }
Albanian: kɛ 'wen?', se 'was?'
Russ. meaning: вопрос. мест.
References: WP I 521 f
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: кто,
Near etymology: народн. хто, род. п. кого́, укр., блр. хто, др.-русск., ст.-слав. къто τίς, τὶς, ὅς (Ассем., Супр., Клоц. и др.), сербохорв. тко̏, ко̏, род. п. ко̀га, словен. kdó, чеш. kdо (d под влиянием kdе "где"), др.-чеш. kto, слвц. kto, польск. kto, в.-луж. štó, род. п. koho (š по аналогии štо "что?"), н.-луж. сhtо.
Further etymology: Праслав. *kъ-to (относительно -tо см. тот) родственно лит. kаs "кто", лтш. kаs "кто, что" (вопр. и относ.), др.-инд. kás, kā́ "кто", авест., др.-перс. kа-, kā- ж. "кто, который", греч. гомер. τέο "кого, чей", атт. τοῦ "чей", нар. πόθεν, πό-τερος (см. кото́рый), алб. вин. ед. kё "кого?", лат. quī "который", quае, quod, оск. pui, раi, pud, умбр. роi, гот. ƕаs, ƕо̂, д.-в.-н. hwaʒ "что", род. п. hwes "кого, чей, чего", хетт. kui -- относ. местоим. и др.; см Бернекер 1, 675; Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 349; М.--Э. 2, 166 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 110 и сл.; Педерсен, Мuršili 56. Интерес представляет кто́-ка -- шутл. ответ на вопрос "кто?" (Зеленин, РФВ 54, 119). См. -ка.
Pages: 2,393-394
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ka-
Meaning: pron. interrog.
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: kà-s 'wer, was', kàd 'dass', kad(à) 'wann',
Lettish: kas 'wer, was'; ka, kad 'wann'
Old Prussian: ka-s, n. ka 'wer, was'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: {*xwa-s 'wer', etc.; Got hʷilīks, OE hwilc 'wie bescgaffen', OE hwī, hwiu, OIsl hvī 'wie, wozu, warum', usw.}
Meaning: pron. interrog.
IE etymology: IE etymology
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1099
Root: kʷo-, kʷe-, fem. kʷā; kʷei-
English meaning: indefinite/interrogative pronominal base
German meaning: die betonten Formen sind Interrogativa, die unbetonten Indefinita
Grammatical comments: (vermutlich einst nur im Nom. Akk. Sg.); kʷu- (nur im Adv.);
General comments: einzelsprachlich z. T. Relativum geworden
Material: 1. Stamm kʷo-, kʷe-, fem. kʷā-; Gen. kʷeso, Instr. kʷī, Zeitadverb kʷom.

    A. Kasuelle Formen und nur einzelsprachlich belegbare Ableitungen:

    Ai. ká-ḥ (= phryg. κος `irgendeiner', got. ƕas `wer?'), fem. `wer?' und indefinit; idg. kʷos wohl der alte Nom. Sg. m.;

    av. (Gen. gthav. ka-hyā, ča-hyā), fem. `wer?, welcher?', apers. kaš[-čiy], als Indef. mit -čī̆t̃, oder in Doppelsetzung, oder in neg. oder rel. Sätzen; av. `wie?'; apers. ada-kaiy `damals' = gr. ποι bei Pindar `που̃' gesetzt;

    arm. о `wer?' (*kʷo-, Meillet Esquisse2 189), indef. o-k` `irgendwer' (-k` = lat. que), o-mn `wer' (relativ o-r `welcher'); k`ani `wieviel', k`an `als, nach dem Komparativ' (= lat. quam), k`anak `quantita' u. dgl.; lat. quantus `wie groß', umbr. panta `quanta' ist von quām mit Formans-to- abgeleitet;

    gr. Gen. Sg. hom. τέο, att. του̃ `wessen?' (= abg. ceso, ahd. hwes; idg. *kʷes(j)o); Dat. Sg. f. dor. πᾳ̃, att. πῃ̃, ion. κῃ̃ (*kʷā-) `wohin?, wozu?, wie?'; Instr. f. ion. att. πη̃ `wohin'; Instr. Sg. m. n. kret. ὀ-πη̃ `wo, wohin', dor. πή-ποκα, πώ-ποκα, att. πώ-ποτε `je einmal, noch je', πω, ion. κω `(*über einen Zeitraum hin, irgendwann =) noch' und modal `irgendwie' in οὔ πω `noch nicht' und `nicnt irgendwie, keinesfalls' (vgl. got. ƕē sowie lat. quō `wohin', wenn nicht Ablativ); πω̃ς, ion. κω̃ς `wie'; ποδαπός `von woher stammend' (neutr. *kʷod + Formans -ŋ̣kʷo-, vgl.ἀλλοδ-απός oben S. 25 unter *alios `anderer'); att. usw. ποι̃ `wohin', dor. πει̃ `wo' (Lok.); att.που̃, ion. κου̃ `wo' (Gen.); πόθεν `von wo?'; hom. πόθι, ion. κόθι `wo'; πότε `wann?' (dor. πόκα `wann', vgl. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 629), ποτέ, lesb. πότα, ion. κοτέ `irgendeinmal, einst', wozu auch ποτέ nach Interrogativen, z. B. τί ποτε `was dann' und - mit erst gr. Red. - τίπτε ds. (s. dazu unter poti-s), πόσε `wohin' (-σε aus -τε) = got. ƕaþ, ƕad `wohin'; kret. τει̃ον ποι̃ον Hes., att. ποι̃ος `qualis' aus *kʷo- + oiu̯o- = ai. ḗva- `Art und Weise', ahd. ēwa, vgl. got. laiwa `wie?', s. unter ei- `gehen'; zum Wechsel von π- (: ion. κ-): τ- s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 293 f.

    alb. kë `wen?' (*kʷo-m), se `was?' (Abl. *kʷōd mit analogischer Palatalisierung?), si `wie?' (*kʷei?);

    lat. quī (alat. quoi aus *kʷo + Demonstr. ), quae, quod Rel. und Indefinitum, osk. pui, paí, púd `qui, quae, quod', umbr. po-i, -e, -ei `quī', puře, porse `quod', lat. cuius, cui, quō, quā usw., umbr. pusme `cui'; Adv. lat. quō `wohin' (Abl.) = umbr. pu-e `quō' (u = ō, das vor Enklitika nicht verkürzt ist); lat. quam `wie, als' (Akk. Sg. f.) = umbr. [pre-]pa `[prius-]quam', osk. pruter pam ds. (av. kąm-čit̃ `in irgendeiner, jeder Weise', alat. quam-de = umbr. pane, osk. pan `quam'; lat. quantus s. oben;

    lat. quom, cum `wenn, als; so oft als' (Akk. Sg. n. wie primum usw = av. kǝm `wie', got. ƕan `wann', apr. kan, lit. (dial.) ką `wenn'; aksl. ko-gda aus *ko-g(o)da, Meillet Slave commun2 470;

    mit -de erweitert umbr. pon(n)e, osk. pún `quom'; lat. quandō `wann' (*quām Akk. der Zeiterstreckung + ), umbr. panu-pei `quandōque', mnd. wante `bis'; lat. quantus, umbr. panta `quanta' (S. 644);

    air. nech, adj. (proklit.) nach `aliquis; ullus, quisquam', cymr. corn. bret. nep (*ne-kʷo-s, mit Verblassen der Negation in neg. Sätzen mit wiederholte Negation, ebenso lit. kaz-ne-kàs `etwas', kadà-ne-kadà `zuweilen', abg. někъto `jemand'); air. cāch, verbunden cach, mcymr. pawp, verbunden pop, corn. pup, pop, pep, bret. pep `jeder' (*kʷā- oder kʷō-kʷo-s; zu abg. kakъ `welcher?'), ir. cech `jeder' (das e nach nech); air. can, mcymr. pan (*kʷanā), mbret. ре-ban `woher?'; air. cuin `wann?', mcymr. usw. pan, pann `als, wenn' (*kʷani?), air. ca-ni, mcymr.po-ny `nonne' (*kʷā-);

    got. ƕas (*kʷo-s) `wer?' und indefinit (Gen. ƕis, ahd. hwes = abg. ceso, gr. τέο), aschwed. hvar, har, adän. hvā, ags. hwā `wer', mit dem e des Gen. as. hwē, ahd. hwer (*kʷe-s) `wer'; neutr. got. ƕa (*kʷo-d), ahd. hwaz, an. hvat, ags. hwæt, as. hwat `was'; fem. got. ƕō `wer? welche?' : got. ƕan `wann, wie', as. hwan, ahd. hwanne `wann' (näherer Vergleich mit air. can `woher' ist wegen der Bed. fraglich), as. hwanda `weil', ahd. hwanta `warum'; got. ƕē `womit?' (Instr.); afries. , as. hwō, ahd. hwuō `wie' zu lat. quō `wohin' (Ablat.), gr. πω, κω `irgendwie';

    lit. kàs `wer?, was?' auch indefinit, fem. kà, apr. kas m., ka n. `wer?', kas f. quai, quoi, n. ka (Akk. auch kan, kai) `welcher, -e, -es'; lit. kad `wenn, daß, damit' (Konjunktion wie lat. quod, aus dem fragenden Gebrauch, vgl. ai. kad, av. kat̃ adv. Fragewort `nun, ob?'); lit. kaĩ, kaĩ-p, apr. kāi-gi `wie?' (= abg. cě; aber über gr. καί s. unter *kai `und');

    abg. kъ-to `wer?' (Gen. česo), kyjь, f. kaja, n. koje `qui, ποι̃ος?', cě `καίτοι, καίπερ, εἴπερ' (s. oben).

    B. Ableitungen, die sich durch mehrere Sprachen verfolgen lassen: kʷo-tero- `wer von zweien?'; kʷā-li- `wie?'; kʷo-ti-, kʷe-ti- `wie viele?'.

    Ai. katará-, av. katāra- `wer von zweien', gr. πότερος, ion. κότερος ds., osk. Lok. pútereí-píd `in utroque', umbr. podruh-pei adv. `utroque', putres-pe `utriusque', got. ƕaþar, aisl. hvārr, ags. hwæþer `wer von beiden' (ahd. hwedar, nhd. noch in weder, mit e, wie hwer `wer' : got. ƕas), lit. katràs `welcher von beiden, welcher?', abg. koteryjь, kotoryjь `welcher' Komparativbildung (Beschränkung auf die Wahl zwischen zwei Gegensätzen); superlativisch ai. katamá- `welcher von mehreren'; vgl. vom Stamm kʷu- : lat. uter.

    Ai. kadā, av. kaδa `wann?'; aber lit. kadà `wann?' aus *kadā̀n; zum Ausgang siehe oben S. 181 ff. (auch für abg. kǫdǫ, kǫdě `woher', lat. quan-do).

    Gr. πηλί-κος `wie groß? wie alt?', lat. quālis `wie beschaffen', lit. kõlei, kõl' `wie lange'; vom St. kʷo- aus: abg. kolikъ `wie groß', kolь `quantum' (Trautmann 111).

    Ai. káti `wie viele' = hitt. kuwatta, lat. quot ds. (vom apokopierten quot aus: quotus `der wievielte'), ai. kati-thá- `der wievielte' = lat. *quotitei (Lok. m.) diē > cottī-diē `amwievielten Tage auch immer, täglich'; gr. lesb. πόσσος (hom. ποσση̃μαρ), att. πόσος, ion. κοσος `wie groß' (*kʷoti-os; πόστος `der wievielte' aus *ποσσοστός; daneben mit idg. e av. čaiti `wie viele', bret. pet in pet dez `wieviel Tage', petguez `quotiēns'.

    Ai. kár-hi `wann?' = got. ƕar, aisl. hvar (*kʷor) `wo?' und relativ (davon got. ƕarjis, aisl. hverr `welcher', eig. `wo er', wie aus lit. kur̃ [*kʷū̆r] `wo' + jìs `er' das lit. Rel. kurìs, kur̃s `welcher' erwuchs); ē-stufig ags. hwǣr, ahd. as. hwār `wo'; ō-stufig lat. cūr `warum, weshalb', alt quōr.

    Eine Parallelbildung zu lat. quis in alat. quir-quir `ubicunque'.

    2. Stamm kʷei-, gleiche Form für Maskul., Neutr. und Femin.:

    Ai. kím `was? was', kíḥ `wer?', ná-ki-ḥ `niemand' (mit k statt c; letzteres lautgesetzlich in:) ai. cit (cid), av. cit̃, apers. čiy `sogar, jedenfalls' (ursprüngl. Nom. Sg. n. *kʷi-d; s. auch unter kʷe `und'); av. čiš `wer', čišca = lat. quisque, gr. τίς τε, apers. čiš-čiy ds.; av. čī `wie' (Instr.);

    arm. in in-č `etwas' (= ai. kim - cid), das auch im ersten Glied hierher, mit Abfall des kʷ- wie i (z-i) `was?' (*kʷid-), Instr. i-v `wodurch, womit', (s. auch oben zu arm. о `wer'); zum Alb. s. oben unter 1;

    gr. τίς (*kʷis) m. f. (thess. κίς, ark. kypr. σίς), n. τί (*kʷid) `wer? welcher, -e, -es?' und τὶς, τὶ `(irgend) wer, was', Akk. m. *τιν (*kʷim) erw. zu τίνα, wonach τίνος, τίνι, Pl. n. *kʷi̯ǝ in megar. σά μάν `wieso?' τὶ μην; böot. τά `warum' = lat. quia; auch in ion. ἄσσα, att. ἄττα, `τινὰ Nom. Pl.' (durch falsche Trennung aus ὁποι̃ά σσα) und mit dem relativen ἅ verbunden ἅσσα, att. ἅττα;

    lat. quis, quid `wer, was' (fragend, indefinit, relativ), quī Adv. `wodurch, wovon (rel.); wie denn, warum (frag.); irgendwie (in Wunschformeln)' (könnte Abl. *kʷīd sein, aber doch wohl auf Grund eines Instr. *kʷi = av. čī, sloven. či `wenn', čech. či `ob', ags. usw. hwī `wie, wozu, warum'); quī-n (aus -ne) `wie nicht; daß nicht, ohne', quia-nam `warum', quia `daß, weil' (Akk. Pl. *kʷiǝ) s. oben;

    osk. pis, píd `quis, quid' (fragend, indefinit, unbestimmt-relativ), umbr. sve-pis `sī quis', pis-i `quis, quisquis'; gedoppelt osk. pispis, lat. quisquis, argiv. τίστις in verallgemeinernd indef. Sinne;

    air. cid `was?' mit dem i von c-id `obwohl es sei'; ursprüngl. wie das adj. ced aus *ce ed;

    air. cia `wer', cymr. pwy, corn. pyw, bret. piou `wer' (*kʷei); verbunden cymr. py, pa, p- usw. (air. cote, cate `was ist', `wo ist' ist unklar);

    got. ƕi-leiks, ags. hwilc `wie beschaffen'; ags. hwī, as. hwī, hwiu, aisl. hvī `wie, wozu, warum' (kʷī Instr.);

    abg. čь-to `was'; Instr. kʷī (s. oben) in sloven. či `wenn; auch Fragepartikel', čech. či `ob', poln. czy `ob', russ. alt či `wenn', abg. či-mь Instr. daraus erweitert;

    über toch. A kus, В kuse `welcher' s. Pedersen Toch. 121;

    hitt. Frage- und Relativpron. kuiš `wer, welcher', verallgemeinernd kuiš kuiš usw. (= lat. quisquis) `wer immer', Indefinitum kuiš-ki (= lat. quisque) `irgend jemand', n. kuit-ki (= lat. quidque); lyk. ti-ke (= hit kuiš-ki); s. P. Tedesco Lang. 21, 128 ff., A. Hahn Lang. 22, 68 ff.

    3. Stamm kʷu-:

    Ai. ́, av. `wo?', ved. kuv-íd `ob, etwa', av. čū `wie, in welchem Maße?' (č- nach čī `wie?'); ai. kúva, kvá `wo, wohin'; ai. kútra, av. kuɵra `wo? wohin?'; ai. kútaḥ `woher'; ai. kúha = gathav. kudā `wo' (= abg. kъde; idg. *kʷu-dhe; s. unten lat. ubi); av. kuɵa `wie'; hierher auch ar. ku als 1. Zsglied zum Ausdruck des Schlechten, Mangelhaften (eig. `was für ein...!'), z. B. ai. ku-putra- `schlechter Sohn', av. ku-nāiri `Hure', vgl. böot. πούλιμος `Heißhunger' (*πυ-), aböot. Πυλιμιάδᾱς, auch von den Stämmen kʷo- und kʷi-: ai. ka-, kā-, kad-, kim-, z. B. kā-puruṣa- `Wicht', ka-pūya- `übelriechend', kiṃ-puruṣa- `Kobold, Zwerg' (W. Schulze Kl. Schr. 399 f.);

    kret. ὄ-πυι `wohin', syrak. πυ̃ς (*πυι-ς), rhod. ὅπῡς `wohin' (*πυι neugebildet zu ποι̃);

    alb. kur `als, wann' (s. unter 1. В bei den r-Bildungen = lit. kur̃, arm. ur), kurrë `je' (*kur-nei), ku `wo', ku-sh `wer', kü-sh `wie' (ü aus idg. ū);

    lat. ubī̆ `wo' (dazu unde gebildet nach ibi : inde), woneben inlaut. -cubī in nē-cubi, sī-cubi, ali-cubi, nesciō-cubi, nun-cubi (nē-cunde usw.); es ist das durch die Stämme lat. quo-, quā, quī vor der Entlabialisierung durch u bewahrte - vor u zu qw- geworden und qwu- hat anl. wu-, u- ergeben, während in *nē-qwubi usw. infolge der Silbentrennung nēq-wubī der Gutt. erhalten blieb; ist ubī̆ nach Lok. auf (*ei, *oi) aus *ubĕ = ai. kúha, av. kudā, abg. kъde umgebildet = osk. puf `ubi' (umbr. erweitert zu pufe `ubi')?; nach Pedersen Hitt. 50 f. enthalten ubi, ibivielmehr die idg. Adverbialendung -bhi (gr. -φι), vgl. hitt. ku-wa-pi (kwabi) `wo, wann?'; entsprechend lat. ut `wie, damit, daß' (uti-nam, -que) und utī, alat. utei (Umbildung wie in ubī) aus *kʷu-ti (us-piam, -quam `irgendwo' aus ut + adv. s = osk. puz, umbr. puz-e aus *kʷut-s-), uter, utra, -um `welcher von beiden' aus *kʷu-teros (parallel mit πότερος usw.), unquam, umquam `irgendeinmal' (kʷum- temporaler Akk.); ob umbr. pu-e (-o Part.) `wo' = ai. ist oder *kʷō, ist fraglich;

    mcymr. cw, cwd (= ð), cwt (= d) `wo, wohin' (*kʷu-) = air. со `wie?';

    got. -hun zur Bildung unbestimmter Pronomina: ni ains-hun `nicht irgendeiner', usw.; ags. `wie', engl. how, afries. , mnd. ;

    lit. kur̃ `wo' (s. oben 1. B); auch lit. dial. kũ `was?' aus *kun? apr. quei `wo' aus *kʷu-ei und wohl der Ausgangspunkt des qu- statt k- im fem. Nom. quai, quoi usw.;

References: WP. I 514 ff., WH. I 313, II 397 f., 404 ff., 408 f., 410 ff., Trautmann 110 f., 120 f., 133, 134, Meillet Slave commun2 442 ff., 469, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 293 f., 615 ff., Wackernagel-Debrunner 3, 558 ff.
Pages: 644-648
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`a(j)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: who, interrogative pronoun
Russian meaning: кто, вопросительное местоимение
Turkic: *kem, *Ka-
Mongolian: *ken, *ka-
Tungus-Manchu: *xia (*xai)
Korean: *ka
Japanese: *ka
Comments: EAS 46, 47, 140, KW 225, Цинциус 1984, 75-76, АПиПЯЯ 41-42, 285. The TM form, despite Doerfer MT 27, Rozycki 222 has nothing to do with Mong. *ja- q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *kem, *Ka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 who 2 which
Russian meaning: 1 кто 2 какой
Old Turkic: kem (OT, OUygh.) 1, qaju (OT, OUygh.), qanu (OUygh.) 2
Karakhanid: kem~kim (MK, KB) qaju (MK, KB) 2
Turkish: kim 1
Tatar: kem 1, qaj 2
Middle Turkic: kim (Abush., IM) 1
Uzbek: kim 1, qaj 2
Uighur: kim, kem (dial.) 1, qaj 2
Sary-Yughur: kɨm 1
Azerbaidzhan: kim 1
Turkmen: kim 1, qaj 2
Khakassian: kem 1
Oyrat: kem 1, qaj 2
Chuvash: kam 1
Yakut: kim 1, xaja 2
Dolgan: kim 1, kaja 2
Tuva: qɨm 1, qajɨ 2
Tofalar: qum 1, qai 2
Kirghiz: kim 1, qaj 2
Kazakh: kim 1, qaj 2
Noghai: kim 1
Bashkir: kem 1, qaj (dial.) 2
Balkar: kim 1
Gagauz: kim 1
Karaim: kɨm 1
Karakalpak: kim 1
Salar: käm 1
Comments: VEWT 271, EDT 720-721, ЭСТЯ 5, 67-68, 191-192, Stachowski 134, 147.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ken, *ka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: who
Russian meaning: кто
Written Mongolian: ken (L 453)
Middle Mongolian: ken (SH), kɛn (IM), kin (MA); qa'a (SH) 'where'
Khalkha: xen
Buriat: xen
Kalmuck: ken
Ordos: ken
Dongxian: kien; qa-
Baoan: kaŋ; ha-
Dagur: ken, xen (Тод. Даг. 149); xā- (Тод. Даг. 173), hā- 'where', hen (MD 153, 154, 160)
Shary-Yoghur: ken; xā-, xa-
Monguor: ken (SM 195)
Mogol: ken; ZM kijän (27-5a)
Comments: KW 225, MGCD 310, 342.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xia (*xai)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 what 2 who
Russian meaning: 1 что 2 кто
Evenki: ē̂kūn 1, ē̂ 2
Even: ǟq 1
Negidal: ē̂xun, ē̂kun 1, 2; ē̂wa 1
Spoken Manchu: ai 1 (2896)
Literary Manchu: ai / ja 1, 2
Ulcha: χaj 1
Orok: xai 1
Nanai: χaị 1
Solon: ī 1
Comments: ТМС 1, 4-5, 286-288.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *ka, *ko
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: interrogative particle
Russian meaning: вопросительная частица
Modern Korean: -ka, -ga, -ko, -go
Middle Korean: -ka, -kó
Comments: Nam 45, KED 2, 133.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: interrogative particle
Russian meaning: вопросительная частица
Old Japanese: -ka
Middle Japanese: -ka
Tokyo: -ka
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 375
Proto: *ku- ~ *ko-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: who, which, ? what
German meaning: wer, welcher, ? was
Finnish: kuka 'wer, welcher', kumpi (gen. kumman) 'welcher von beiden', kussa 'wo', konsa 'als, da, wenn', koska 'wann, als, da, weil', kuin 'wie, als'
Estonian: kumb (gen. kumma) 'welcher von beiden', kus 'wo, wohin', kõis 'wann', koos 'wann, wenn', kui 'wie, als'
Saam (Lapp): gutti -đ- 'who, which', goab'ba 'which (of two)', gǫst 'where, whence', gǫ 'when, because' (N), kå 'als, wenn, wie', kåbbā 'wer, welcher (von zweien)', kånne 'wo, woher' (L), kū (gen. kon) (T Kld. Not. A) 'wer, welcher', koist (T Kld. Not. A) 'wo, woher', ki̊øiss (T), kuøiss (Kld.), kuøiss, kueiss, kuaiss (Not.), kois (A) 'wann, jemals, wenn, als', koχt (Kld. A) 'wie'
Mordovian: kona (E M) 'welcher', koso (E), kosa (M) 'wo', koda, kida (E), koda, kuda (M) 'wie, wenn, als'
Mari (Cheremis): kǝ̑δǝ̑ (KB), kuδo (U B) 'wer, welcher', kǝ̑štǝ̑ (KB), kušto (U B) 'wo', kǝ̑ce (KB), kuze (U B), kuźe (M) 'wie'
Udmurt (Votyak): ke̮če (S), kǝ̑če (K), kị̑če, ke̮če (G) 'was für ein, wie', kud, kudi̮z (S), kudiz (G) 'welcher', ki̮ti̮n (S), kǝ̑tǝ̑n (K), kị̑tị̑n (G) 'wo', ki̮ǯ́i̮ (S), kiźǝ̇ (K), kị̑źị̑ (G) 'wie', ku (G) 'wann'
Komi (Zyrian): kod (S) 'wer', ke̮d (P), kut, ku.dik (PO) 'welcher', kuče̮m (S), ki̮če̮.m (P) 'welcher', ki̮te̮n, ke̮n (S), ki̮te̮.n (P), køtø.n (PO) 'wo', ki̮ʒ́ (SP), ku̇ʒ́ (PO) 'wie, weil'
Khanty (Ostyak): koji̮ (V), χŏjǝ (DN), χŏj (O) 'wer', kŏti̮ (V), χŏtǝ (DN), χŏti (O) 'was', kot (V), χătan (DN), χătȧ (O) 'wo', kuntǝ (V), χun (DN O) 'wann'
Mansi (Vogul): kan (TJ), χon, χan, χoan (KU), kon (P), χɔ̄ŋka (So.) 'wer', kōn (TJ), χūn (KU), kūn (P), χuń (So.) 'wann', kāt (TJ), χōt (KU), kōt (P), χɔ̄t (So.) 'wo', khọmĺė, khọmėĺ (K), khum, khumĺe (P), χum, χumĺė (N) 'wie'
Hungarian: hol (dial. hól, hon, hun) 'wo', ha 'wenn, als, dial. wann', hogy 'wie; daß'
Nenets (Yurak): χińćerʔ 'wie', χūjumʔ 'welcher von beiden', χūna 'wo' (O)
Enets (Yen): hōke 'welcher', kokohone 'wo', kune (Ch.), kunne (B) 'wann', kuro, kudo 'woher'
Nganasan (Tawgi): kua, kunie 'welcher', kuninu 'wo', kuniʔāŋ, kunijāŋ 'wohin, wie'
Selkup: kut(э) (Ta.), kud, kod (N) 'wer', k͔ai (Ke.) 'wer, was', kuu (Ta.) 'wohin', kun 'wo, woher', kūt (Ty.) 'wer', qaj, qåj (Ty.) 'was', qåj (Tur.) 'was', qåitqo (Tur.) 'warum', kutar (Tur.) 'wie'
Kamass: kāmǝ̑n 'wenn', kadeʔ, kǝ̑daʔ, kådoʔ 'wie', lojǝt 'wie beschaffen'
Addenda: Kar. kudama 'was, welcher'; Koib. куминэ 'сколько'; Mot. кымъ 'wer', кулгу 'какой'
Yukaghir parallels: xadi 'welcher', xon 'where, whither'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-add,uralet-yuk,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *ki-na (*kiR-kur, *kira-m)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun: who
Russian meaning: вопросительное местоимение: кто
Proto-Yupik: *kina (*kin-kurǝ, ki[r]am, ki-tu-)
Proto-Inupik: *kina (kit-kut, kia/ kinaup)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 174
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *kina (*kin-kurǝ, ki[r]am, ki-tu-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun: "who"
Russian Meaning: вопросительное местоимение: "кто"
Sirenik: kīn (kinǝ-ki pl., kim rel., ki-(nǝŋ))
Chaplino: kiná (kin-kut pl., kitu-m rel., kitu-), kina*
Naukan: kiná (kin-kut pl., kitu-)
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: kinaq (kin-kut pl., kina-m rel., kitu-)
Chugach (Birket-Smith): kina
Central Alaskan Yupik: kina (kin-kut pl., kia(m), kitu-m rel., kitu-)
Nunivak (Peripheral): kina*
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 173, 174
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *kina (kit-kut, kia/ kinaup)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun: who
Russian meaning: вопросительное местоимение: кто
Seward Peninsula Inupik: kina (kitkut pl., kia rel.), kitu 'which')
SPI Dialects: Imaq kiná (kitkō pl., kē rel.), W kina* (kitkut* pl., kia* rel., kitu 'which')
North Alaskan Inupik: kińa (kitkut pl., kia rel., kisu 'which')
NAI Dialects: B kina* (kia* rel.), kicutʎiqa* 'some people', Ingl kina* (kĭtkut* pl., kia* rel., kisu* 'which')
Western Canadian Inupik: kina (kit(k)ut pl.)
WCI Dialects: Cor, M kina* (kia* rel.), Cor kita* 'which'
Eastern Canadian Inupik: kina (ki(na)kkut pl., kia, kinaup rel., kisuk 'what')
Greenlandic Inupik: kina (kikkut pl., kia rel.) (kina*, kia* rel.)
GRI Dialects: NG kihu 'what', EG kisi(k), kisu 'what'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 174
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *m-kǝ, *m-kĕn-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): кто
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *mik, *mikǝn-
Proto-Itelmen: *k'e, *k'en-
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *mik, *mikǝn-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вопр. мест. "кто"
Chukchee: mík- sg., míki/ǝ-n-ti pl., mík-in poss., mikǝrǝk loc. pl., makǝ́-rɣǝ-n
Koryak: meki, miknek loc., mik-(ne-) sg., mekin-ti du., meki-w pl., mikǝjǝk loc., mikǝcɣǝ-ne-
Palan: meki, miɣɣa, mik-, mik-in poss.
Alutor: mìɣɣa, mik-
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *k'e, *k'en- EA
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): мест. вопр. кто
Itelmen: k'e (k'en poss.) 1
Itelmen meaning: кто, чей 1, кто есть 2
West Itelmen: kẹ (kẹ commit., kẹn poss.)
West Itelmen meaning: quis, cum quo, cujus
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): kto, z kim, czyj
South Itelmen: kač, kač-sič tal 3sg. 1
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): quis, cujus haec 1
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): kto, ta czyja
Number in Volodin 1976: 27, 170
Stebnitsky reference: 92, 90
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-steb,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KV
Meaning : interrogative pronoun
Eurasiatic : *ḳV
Afroasiatic : *kV (Cush., Om., Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : *x_V
Austric : *kU
Amerind (misc.) : *ki ~ *ka ~ *ku 'interrogative' (R 395) [+ A K]; *xa 'interrogative' (R 397) [+ A K]; *yak 'interrogative' (R 402) [+ A]
African (misc.) : Bantu *kí 'what?'.
Reference : ND 981; GE 8 *ku(n) (+ ?Khois., NiC, NS, ?Austral., Nahali).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xV (*xV́HV)
Meaning: what
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *x_V
Sino-Tibetan: *qhā-
Yenisseian: *ʔaj ( ~ x-)
Comments and references : NSC 65 *xV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *x_V
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun (who, what)
Proto-Nakh: *χa
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʎ:i-
Proto-Tsezian: *ʎ:u- /*ʎ:i-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʎ:i / *ʎ:ʷi
Proto-West Caucasian: *xA
Notes: The vocalic reconstruction is somewhat uncertain (probably, due to old Ablaut). We may note that this interrogative stem is mostly (although not always) used in oblique cases, notably ergative.

    See Trubetzkoy 1922, 239; 1930, 274.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *χa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: an interrogative stem
Chechen: (mū-)χa
Batsbi: (wu-)χ
Comments: In Nakh this stem is used only as the second part of interrogative compounds (Chech. mū-χa "which", Bacb. wu-χ "what").
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʎ:i-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: who (obl. stem)
Avar: ʎ:i-
Chadakolob: ʎi-
Andian language: ʎ:e-
Akhvakh: ʎ:o-
Chamalal: ʎ:e-
Tindi: ʎ:o-(b)-
Karata: ʎ:o-la-
Botlikh: ʎ:e-
Bagvalal: ʎ:o-
Godoberi: ʎ:e-
Comments: Some forms (Akhv., Tind., Kar., Botl.) reflect the labialized variant *ʎ:ʷi- (having probably incorporated the class marker of the 1st class). The same stem (with a suffixed -n-) is used in some languages for the unanimate interrogative (obl. stem): Akhv., Botl. ,Cham., God. ʎ:un-. This is obviously a secondary replacement of the original *s:u-n- (q.v.) under influence of the animate ʎ:i-.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ʎ:u- /*ʎ:i-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: an interrogative stem
Tsezi: ʎi-nas
Ginukh: ʎu
Khvarshi: ʎu (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: ʎu
Bezhta: ʎi-ni
Comments: PTsKh *ʎu 'who, what' (Inkh. ʎu id., Gin. ʎu 'who'); the stem *ʎe- was used in some oblique forms, cf.Tsez. ʎi-nas, ʎi-nar 'why', Gin. ʎi-ni erg. 'what'. Bezht. has ʎō (erg.) 'who', ʎi-ni (erg.) 'what'.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʎ:i / *ʎ:ʷi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 what 2 who
Lezghian: wu-č 1
Tabasaran: fu 1
Agul: fi 1
Archi: ʎ:i(-li)2 (erg)
Comment: Labialization in some forms is secondary (*ʎ:ʷi < *u_V-ʎ:i with a class prefix).

    See Гигинейшвили 1977, 128.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *xA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: who
Adyghe: xat
Kabardian: xat
Ubykh: š́ǝ
Comments: PAK *xá-tǝ. Abdokov (1973, 23, 72) and Shagirov (2, 104) are quite right in comparing this morpheme with Ub. š́ǝ and rejecting Trubetzkoy's (1930, 80) comparison of Ub. š́ǝ with Bzhed., Shaps. śǝ-d 'what'. Semantically and phonetically the comparison š́ǝ = AK *xa- is blameless.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *qhā-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what, interrogative pronoun
Chinese: *ghāj what, 曷 *ghāt what, where.
Tibetan: ga-ru whither, gaŋ who, which, ga-na, gaŋ-ŋa where.
Burmese: LB *kha- who
Lushai: ēŋ what.
Kiranti: *he
Comments: Coblin 160.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: hé
Preclassic Old Chinese: ghāj
Classic Old Chinese: ghāj
Western Han Chinese: ɣāj
Eastern Han Chinese: ɣǟ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ɣā
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ɣā
Late Postclassic Chinese: ɣā
Middle Chinese: ɣâ
English meaning : (be) what?
Russian meaning[s]: 1) что; какой; где; куда; откуда; как, каким образом, почему; почему бы...; насколько же...; универсальное вопросительное слово, часто обозначает риторический вопрос или отрицание; 2) нести, см. 菏; 3) Хэ (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 儋也.一曰誰也.從人.可聲. [371]
Comments: Regular Sino-Viet. is hà. Cf. also Viet. ha` 'interrogative particle'. Initial *gh- is reconstructed on analogy with related interrogatives: 胡 *ghā (cf. Xiamen ɔ2, Chaozhou ou2), 盍 *ghāp (Xiamen ap8). The character is used also for OC *ghājʔ, MC ɣấ (FQ JY 下可), Mand. hè 'to carry, bear', usually written as 荷 q.v.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 9
Four-angle index: 2985
Karlgren code: 0001 f
Vietnamese reading: há
Dali Bai: xa3-
Bijiang Bai: -xã2
Shijing occurrences: 3.4, 17.2, 17.3, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 33.4, 35.4, 37.1, 37.2, 40.1_, 40.2_, 40.3_, 47.1_, 52.1, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 314
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 果開一平歌匣
ZIHUI: 0149 0201
Beijing: xô 12
Jinan: xǝ 12
Xi'an: xuo 12
Taiyuan: xǝ 1
Hankou: xo 12
Chengdu: xo 12
Yangzhou: xo 12
Suzhou: ɦǝu 12
Wenzhou: vu 12
Changsha: xo 12
Shuangfeng: ɣû 12
Nanchang: ho 12
Meixian: hɔ 12
Guangzhou: hɔ 12
Xiamen: ho 12
Chaozhou: ho 12
Fuzhou: xɔ 12
Shanghai: ɦu 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: xo 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *he
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: what
Tulung: he what, heka how, why, hem who, which, ham what etc.
Kaling: he how, heke why, hene when etc.
Limbu: who, [hɛn what] (V.Dr.: ēn nom., e:lle erg. 'who')
Dumi: hem
Kulung: hādem 'when', hākǝ 'which', hāpi 'where'
Yamphu: hambeʔ 'where', hambaŋä 'which'
Comments: Cf. Toba 98 *khäpi 'where' (also listing Tul. ba and Kal. 'khäbi).
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: hɛn
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: pro.
Meaning: what.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: hem
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: adj.
Meaning: which
Nepali: kun.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: ha:dem
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: pron.
Meaning: when?, at what time?
Nepali: kahile.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: hambeʔ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: interrog.
Meaning: where
Comments: ham.bet.te khäʔ.m.ä? (where.LOC.ISF go.INF.FCT) Where to go?
Nepali: kahā
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,yamet-nepali,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔaj ( ~ x-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative particle
Ket: aj 'why; what; how' (Castr. ʌj 'what')
Yug: aj 'why'
Comments: Werner 1, 18 (without reconstruction). One is also tempted to compare Ket ɛʔk / ɛk, Yug ɛk 'how, as; so as' (Werner 1, 228, 256) with a possible protoform *eʔx; the forms Ket, Yug aj in that case can be (with Ablaut) traced back to *ʔa(ʔ)x-i.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kU
Meaning: what, how
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: ? Nicob. kahä 'what'
Munda parallels: o-ko-e 'who', o-ka 'what'
Proto-Austronesian: *ku`a[`]
Austronesian meaning: how
References: GE 8
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-mun,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-bibl,

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