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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ḳirV́
Meaning: knife
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ḳirV
Sino-Tibetan: *Krij
Comments and references : ? Cf. PAN *kǝ[L]it' 'dagger' (Peiros 1998, 222).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳirV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: knife, axe
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳirV
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳir(a)
Notes: An Av.-And.-Lezg. isogloss.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ḳirV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: big knife, hatchet
Avar: ḳerelo (Unt.)
Akhvakh: ḳeru (Tlan.)
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ḳira
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hook,stick with a hook 2 fang 3 hatchet, small axe
Lezghian: ḳir 1,2
Tabasaran: ḳir 2
Rutul: ḳiruw 3 (Khnov.)
Tsakhur: ḳera 3
Kryz: ḳir 1
Budukh: ḳir 1
Archi: ḳiri 3
Comment: Obl. base *ḳirä- (cf. the Tsakh. form and Tab. ḳira-). Arch. and Rut. reflex a suffixed form *ḳirä-j / *ḳiru-j ( > ḳiruw). 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Krij
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brass, copper
Tibetan: gri knife.
Burmese: krijh copper, brass, LB *krijx .
Kachin: mǝgri1 brass (cf. also (H) n-khji a small knife)).
Lushai: KC *M-Gre ? iron.
Comments: Midzhu teŋ-gri. Sh. 184; Ben. 22; Mat. 177; Luce 10.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : to scrape
Eurasiatic : *ḳirV; cf. also *gVrV scratch, *gVrVbV notch, sign
Afroasiatic : *ḳaraʕ cut; *garaʕ id.
Sino-Caucasian : *ḳirV knife
Austric : *KVr 'scrape, dig'; *KVr 'shave'.
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kùd- 'scrape'.
Notes : Obviously several roots that have to be sorted out.
Reference : GE 30 *gir (+ NS).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-afr,globet-notes,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳirV
Meaning: to scrape
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *k'erǝ-
Altaic: *k`ĭ̀rka
Uralic: *kirä; Selk. kīra
Dravidian: *ker-
References: МССНЯ 365, ОСНЯ 1, 354. ? ND 1162 *Ḳir(X)V 'to scrape, scratch' ( + Sem.); 1151 *ḳiruʕV 'to strike, hit', 1152 *ḲirVʡV 'to tear, break' - all very dubious. Cf. *ḳVrV. Cf. Austric: PAA *ki:r 'scrape, dig', PAN *karkar 'dig' (or *kahiR 'scratch, scrape, rake').
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k'era-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to damage, to delete
Old Indian: śrṇā́ti `to crush, rend, break', pass. śīryate, ptc. śīrṇá-, -śīrta-, śūrtá-
Avestan: asarǝta- `nicht gebrochen', sari- m. `Bruchstück, Scherbe', sāri- f. `Bruch, Untergang'
Old Greek: keraízdō `verwüsten, zerstören, vernichten', kḗr, gen. kērós f. `Tod, Verderben'
Latin: cariēs, -ēī f. `das Morsch-, Faulsein'
Celtic: OIr ar.a.chrinim `zerfalle', eo.ro.cha(i)r `cecidit', irchre `Untergang'
Albanian: ɵer `schlachte'
Russ. meaning: повреждать, уничтожать
References: WP I 410 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 929
Root: k̂er-4 und k̂erǝ- : k̂rē-
English meaning: to hurt, harm; to be spoiled
German meaning: `versehren'; intr. `zerfallen, vermorschen'
Material: Ai. śr̥ṇā́ti `zerbricht, zermalmt', śī́ryate, śīryáte `wird zerbrochen, zerfällt', Partiz. śīrṇá-, -śīrtá-, śūrtá- `zerbrochen, verfault', Inf. śaritoḥ;

    av. asarǝta- `nicht gebrochen, nicht mutlos gemacht' (= ai. áśīrta-), sari- m. `Bruchstück, Scherbe', sāri- f. `Bruch, Untergang'; ein d(h)-Präsens dazu ist vielleicht npers. gusilem `zerbreche, trenne' aus apers. *vi-sr̥dāmiy;

    gr. κεραΐζω `verwüste, plündere' (*κερα-ίζω, auf Grund eines *κεραο-ς; κερᾰ- = ai. śari-), ἀκέραιος `unzerstört, unversehrt', κεραυνός `Donnerkeil, Blitz' (*κερα-[ε]ν-ος, eigentlich `Zerschmetterer'); dehnstufig gr. κήρ, κηρός, f. `Tod, Verderben; Todesgöttin', (urgr.ē; den att. Spruch θύραζε κα̃ρες (κη̃ρες) ... erklärt man aus einem sekundären Nom. *καρ aus *κᾰρς mit ᾰ aus dem einstigen Paradigma κη̃ρ : *καρός); καριω̃σαι ἀποκτει̃ναι Hes. enthält Reduktionsstufe, wie alb. ther; ἀκήριος `unbeschädigt, nicht dem Tode verfallen', κηραίνω `verderbe, schädige', wovon ἀκήρατος `unverletzt', auch `rein, lauter' (auch mit ἀκήρατος `unvermischt' zusammengefallen);

    lat. cariēs (*k̂r̥-i̯ē- zum Präs. *cariō) `das Morschsein, Faulsein', cariōsus `mürbe, morsch', carius `tinea';

    alb. ther `schlachte, schneide' (*k̂r̥-), tsirrís `steche' (*k̂er-n-);

    air. ar-a-chrin (*-k̂r̥-nu-t) `zerfällt', do-cer `er fiel' (*-k̂erǝ-t), crín `welk' (*k̂rē-no-s), irchre n. `Untergang' (*peri-k̂r-i̯o-m);

    toch. A kāryap, В karep `Schaden'.

References: WP. I 410 f., WH. I 167 f., Thurneysen Gr. 437, 462.
Pages: 578
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ĭ̀rka
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape, file
Russian meaning: скрести, полировать
Turkic: *Kɨrk-
Mongolian: *kirga-
Tungus-Manchu: *xigdi-
Korean: *kɨrk- / *kắrk-
Japanese: *kàk-
Comments: KW 232, Poppe 20, 115, Martin 240, ОСНЯ 1, 354. Mong. is hardly borrowed from Turk., despite Щербак 1997, 139. The root tends to contaminate with *gi̯óro q. v. The vowel reflex in Korean is somewhat unclear (*kark- or *kǝrk- would be expected), otherwise all evidence points to *k`irga. The relation of Manchu xergen 'line, scratch, notch' is not quite clear: the word is certainly borrowed (because of -rg-), but the source is unknown; equally unclear is the isolated Manchu qarqa- 'scratch with chopsticks, scrape on the fiyoo instrument' (compared with Kor. by Lee 1958, 113); perhaps in both cases we are dealing with loanwords Manchu < Kor.(?)
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kɨrk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shear, scrape
Russian meaning: стричь, скрести
Old Turkic: qɨrq- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨrq- (MK)
Turkish: kɨrk-
Tatar: qɨrq-
Middle Turkic: qɨrq- (AH, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qirq-
Uighur: qi(r)q-
Sary-Yughur: qɨrq-
Azerbaidzhan: Gɨrx-
Turkmen: Gɨrq-
Khakassian: xɨrɨx-
Oyrat: qɨrq-, qɨrqɨ-
Halaj: qɨrq-
Yakut: kɨrt-
Tuva: qɨrɣɨ-
Kirghiz: qɨrq-
Kazakh: qɨrq-
Noghai: qɨrq-
Bashkir: qɨrq-
Gagauz: qɨrq-
Karaim: qɨrq-
Karakalpak: qɨrq-
Kumyk: qɨrq-
Comments: EDT 651, VEWT 266, ЭСТЯ 6, 236-237.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kirga-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shear, shave
Russian meaning: стричь, брить
Written Mongolian: kirɣa- (L 471)
Middle Mongolian: kirqa- (SH), korɣa- (IM), qirɣa- (MA)
Khalkha: x́arga-
Buriat: xirga-
Kalmuck: kirɣǝ-
Ordos: kirGa-
Dongxian: Gǝɣa-
Shary-Yoghur: χurGa-
Monguor: ćirGā- (SM 457)
Mogol: qirɣa- 'shave, scrape'; KT qǝrɣa- (23-5b)
Comments: KW 232, MGCD 354. Mong. > Evk. kirga- etc., see Poppe 1972, 103, Doerfer MT 131, Rozycki 106, 134.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xigdi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to comb
Russian meaning: чесать, причесывать
Evenki: igdi-
Even: ịd-
Negidal: ịgdị-
Literary Manchu: iǯi-
Jurchen: hir-di-xun 'comb' (549)
Ulcha: sigdu-
Orok: sigdi-
Nanai: sigǯi-
Oroch: igdi-
Solon: idda-
Comments: ТМС 1, 296-297.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kɨrk- / *kắrk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to shear, scrape
Russian meaning: стричь, скрести
Modern Korean: kɨk- [kɨlk-], kak- [kalk-]
Middle Korean: kɨrk-, kắrk-
Comments: Nam 22, 74, KED 48, 249.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to scratch, scrape
Russian meaning: скрести, царапать
Old Japanese: kak-
Middle Japanese: kàk-
Tokyo: kák-
Kyoto: kàk-
Kagoshima: kàk-
Comments: JLTT 702.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1333
Proto: *kirä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to hew, hit
German meaning: hauen, schlagen
Mordovian: keŕa-, käŕa- E, keŕe-, käro- M 'hauen, fällen; züchtigen, prügeln'
Mari (Cheremis): kǝ̑re- U, kire- M 'schlagen (z.B. mit dem Stock, mit dem Hammer) (U M), dreschen (U)', B kǝ̑re- 'schlagen'
Udmurt (Votyak): koral- S K (Wichm.) G 'hauen (S K G), spalten (besonders Holz) (S K)'
Komi (Zyrian): keral- S, kera.v- P, ke.ral- PO 'hauen (S P PO), abhauen, hacken (S P)
Sammalahti's version: *kirä-
K. Redei's notes: Wotj. al und syrj. al sind Verbalsuffixe.
References: Wichmann: FUF 14:83; Uotila, SyrjChr. 92; E. Itkonen: FUF 31:182, 309; Lytkin, VokPerm. 136; SFU 5:116; ESK.
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-samm2,uralet-redei,uralet-lit,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ker-
Meaning : to scratch
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kIr-ai-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ker-, *kir-
Proto-North Dravidian : *qer-c-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-koga,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kIr-ai-
Meaning : to shave, scrape
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : cirai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to shave, cut with a sickle
Tamil derivates : ciraiyan_ barber; cirāy (-pp-, -tt-) to get scratched (as in the skin); curaṇṭu (curaṇṭi-), cur_aṇṭu (cur_aṇṭi-) to scratch, scrape with fingernail or instrument, erase; curaṇṭi, cur_aṇṭi scraper, scrapings
Malayalam : cira
Malayalam meaning : shaving; a grater, scraper for coco-nuts (also cirava)
Malayalam derivates : cirekka to shave, scrape; cireppu shaving, scraping; cirayan a shaved person; cirampan the god of barbers; cirakuka, curakuka to grate; ciraṇṭuka, curaṇṭuka to scratch, scrape; cikkuka, cikayuka to scratch (as fowls)
Kannada : kere
Kannada meaning : to shave, scrape, scratch
Kannada derivates : kerakalu scrapings of burnt rice from a potƛ (Gowda) kĒrɨ to scratch; kiri to shave; keraṇṭu to dig with the nails, scratch; gere a scratch as with the fingernails
Tulu : kerepuni
Tulu meaning : to scrape, polish
Tulu derivates : kereñcuni, keraṇṭuni to scratch the ground (as a fowl); kirejuni to cut as straw, grass-stumps, etc.; to scrape or clear, as the ground; (B-K.) kiresụ, keresụ to scrape
Proto-Nilgiri : *ker-äp-
Number in DED : 1564
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kerä-
Meaning : to scratch
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kekarv- (kekart-), kekrv- (kekrt-) "to scratch lightly (to wake a person), (cattle) paw the ground before fighting, (animal) digs"
Toda : kerf- (kert-) "to scratch, egg on"
Notes : In Kota there is a reduplication (probably expressive in nature). Base vowel -ä- indicated by external data.
Number in DED : 1564
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ker-, *kir-
Meaning : to shave; to scratch
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : kerk- (kerekt-) "to shave"
Kolami (Setumadhava Rao) : kerreŋ "to sharpen"
Naiki : ker- "to shave"
Parji : kir-, kirv-, kirc- "to scratch"
Additional forms : Also Parji kirp- (kirt-) (fowl) scratches
Notes : We probably have to deal with two different roots here, since there is no way to explain the correspondence Kolami, Naiki -e- - Parji -i- (and there are differences in semantics as well).
Number in DED : 1564
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-kol_sr,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-addition,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *qer-c-
Meaning : to rub off, scrape
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : xercnā (xircyas) "to rub off, scour"
Malto : qerce "to scrape"
Additional forms : Also MLT qēre to shave; qērtre to be shaved; qēru barber.
Number in DED : 1564
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳaraʕ-
Meaning: cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ḳVrVʕ- ~ *ḳVʕVr- 'to tear, rend' 1, 'cut (trees)' 2
Western Chadic: *ḳar- 'cut', slaughter' 1 , 'cut off' 2
Central Chadic: *kVr/Vw/-
East Chadic: *kVr- 'carve'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ḳaraʕ- 'cut'
Low East Cushitic: *ḳar- 'sharp, point' (v.)
High East Cushitic: *ḳar- 'be sharp'
Warazi (Dullay): *ḳar- 'sharp'
Dahalo (Sanye): ḳeer- 'cut'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-agw,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-wrz,afaset-dhl,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 539
Proto-Semitic: *ḳVrVʕ- ~ *ḳVʕVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'to tear, rend' 1, 'cut (trees)' 2
Hebrew: ḳrʕ 1 KB 1146
Arabic: ḳʕr [-a-] 2
Notes: Metathesis
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-hbr,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut', slaughter' 1 , 'cut off' 2
Hausa: ḳírà 2
Bolewa: kàrā́ 1 [ShV]
Pero: kara- 1 [Sh]
Ngamo: kara-1 [Sh]
Notes: ireegular vowel in Hausa
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-bol,wchet-per,wchet-ngm,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *kVr/Vw/-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut grass with a sickle to prepare a new field'
Mofu-Gudur: -kǝ́rw- [BMo]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mof,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *kVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'carve'
Ndam: kǝrâ [JgD]
Notes: Cf. Bidiya koor 'scrape, plane' [JBid]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-ndm,echet-notes,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ḳaraʕ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
Bilin: ḳaraaʕ y-
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-bil,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sharp, point' (v)
Somali: qor-
Oromo (Galla): qara
Notes: Cf. also LEC *ḳor- "cut, carve" (Som qor-, Or qor-, Arb qor-), *ḳar- "shave oneself" (Arb qar-)
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-oro,lecet-notes,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'be sharp'
Sidamo: ḳar-aaʔm-
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-sid,

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Warazi etymology :

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Proto-Warazi: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sharp'
Gawwada (Gawata): qaru
wrzet-prnum,wrzet-meaning,wrzet-gaw,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: ḳeer-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *KVr
Meaning: scrape, dig
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *ki:r
Austroasiatic meaning: scrape, dig
Proto-Austronesian: *karkar 'dig' or *ukir 'carving'
Austronesian meaning: dig
Notes: or ANB *kahiR scratch, scrape, rake; cf. *KVr 'shave, scrape'.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-notes,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ki:r
Meaning: scrape, dig
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Khmer: kiǝr, kiǝl
Proto-Monic: *ki:r
Proto-Palaungic: Pr gi
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kmr,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: kiǝr, kiǝl
Meaning: to scrape
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
References: JP18
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-ref,

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Monic etymology :

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Proto-Monic: *ki:r
Meaning: dig
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Mon: ki:r
Nyakur: ci:r.L
Nyakur meaning: dig
References: N215; S-40
monet-meaning,monet-prpr,monet-prnum,monet-om,monet-tc,monet-tcme,monet-bib,

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