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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HɨśɨwV
Meaning: side, rib
North Caucasian: *HɨśɨwV (-ɫī)
Basque: *ɦesu-ṙ
Comments and references : Etymological comparison suggested by John Bengtson.

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HɨśɨwV (-ɫī)
Meaning: side
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔisib(V)
Proto-Tsezian: *žeblV A
Proto-Dargwa: *š:ali
Proto-Lezghian: *s:ɨw
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The stem contains an element *-ɫī (av. xibi-l, PC *žeb-lV, PD *š:a-li < *š:aw-li) which is present not in all languages and may be an old suffix. But if it is not, then this is one of several very rare cases of tetrasyllabic roots in PEC. Quite enigmatic is the Lak. form čul 'side' (why č-?).

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔisib(V)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 side 2 corner
Avar: xibíl 1
Chadakolob: šibíl 2
Andian language: isibo-l 1
Akhvakh: eše 1
Chamalal: isib / esib 1
Tindi: esaba 1
Karata: esebo 1
Botlikh: isib 1
Godoberi: isib 1
Comments: Av. paradigm B (xolbó-l, xalbá-l, Chad. šolbó-l, šalbá-l). Cf. also Akhv. Tseg., Tlan., Ratl. ešeb. The word for "near" in Cham. is a derivate of this root (esba-q:e). Note that the Av. lit. form here reflects *š-, while all other forms reflect *s; variation between *š and *s is typical for reflexes of *ś.

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *žeblV A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 rib 2 side
Tsezi: žibra 1
Ginukh: žibra 1
Khvarshi: žebla (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: žebla 1
Bezhta: šeblo 1,2
Gunzib: šeble 1,2
Comments: PTsKh *žebRa, PGB *šeblV.

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *š:ali
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: side
Akusha: šali
Chiragh: š:ile
Comments: Cf. also Ur. šali, Kub. š:ale.

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *s:ɨw
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 mouth 2 edge, end
Lezghian: siv 1
Tabasaran: uš̌ 2
Agul: siv 3
Tsakhur: siv 2
Kryz: siv 1
Budukh: siv 1
Archi: s:ob 1,2
Udi: oIš 2
Comment: Obl. base *s:ɨwɨ-, cf. Lezg. sivi-, Ag. sivi-, Tsakh. sivɨ-. Cf. also (for the reflexes of *s:) Tab. Düb. už̌u, Ag. Bursh. s:iw. Tab. and Ud. reflect a metathesised form *ʔɨs:ʷ (which may be archaic in the light of external evidence). Belongs to the 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages. Rutul has not preserved the root independently; but probably a trace of it has stayed in xe-sɨ-m ( < xex-sɨ(w)-) 'face' ('nose'+'mouth').

    See Лексика 1971, 108; Талибов 1980, 314.


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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ɦesu-ṙ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Bizkaian: azur
Gipuzkoan: ezur
High Navarrese: ezur
Low Navarrese: hezur
Salazarese: ezur
Lapurdian: hezur
Baztanese: ezur
Aezkoan: ezur
Zuberoan: ézür
Roncalese: ẽzur
Comments: Evidence for nasal only in RNC. Michelena (1961) reconstructs *enazur; but nasality in RNC may sometimes have other explanations. Cf. PEC *HɨśɨwV(-ɫī) 'side' ('rib' in Tsezian).

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