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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 473
Proto: *läppV ( ~ *δäppV, -e-)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: spleen
German meaning: Milz
Saam (Lapp): dađ've -đ-, daw'de (N) 'milt', tab'tē (L) 'Milz', hàbǝδ̀è (Malå), tāipte (T) ?
Mari (Cheremis): lepǝ (KB), lep (U B)
Udmurt (Votyak): lup (S K), lub (Uf.)
Komi (Zyrian): lop (lopj-) (S), lop (PO)
Khanty (Ostyak): лȧ̆pǝtne (Trj.), лepǝtne (Kaz.)
Hungarian: lép
Nenets (Yurak): rapśā (Nj.), лapśā (P)
Sammalahti's version: FU *däpd/ppä
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-samm2,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *lVṗV ?
Meaning: spleen
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *lepr-
Altaic: *li̯ap`V
Uralic: *läppV
References: ND 1310 *l[ä]ṗA 'spleen'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *lep-r-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: liver
Armenian: leard `Leber'
Germanic: *libr-ṓ f.
Russ. meaning: печень
References: WP I 205 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *librṓ
Meaning: liver
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: lifr f. `Leber'
Norwegian: liv(e)r
Swedish: lever
Danish: lever
Old English: lifer, -e f. `liver'
English: liver
Old Frisian: livere
Middle Dutch: lēvere, lēver f.
Dutch: lever f.
Middle Low German: lēver(e)
Old High German: lebara (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: lëber(e) st./wk. f.
German: Leber f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *li̯ap`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Turkic: *japal
Mongolian: *niɣalta
Tungus-Manchu: *lipče
Comments: A Western isogloss. Very scantily represented in Turkic and TM, but probably archaic.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *japal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Tuva: čavana, Todzh. (Рас. ФиЛ, 194) čɨ'val
Tofalar: ča'p`al
Comments: An isolated Sayan root.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *niɣalta
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen (of animals)
Russian meaning: селезенка (животных)
Written Mongolian: niɣalta (L 557: naɣalta)
Khalkha: nālt
Buriat: ńālta
Ordos: nālta
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-ord,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *lip-če
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: spleen
Russian meaning: селезенка
Orok: lipče
Comments: ТМС 1, 499.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-ork,tunget-reference,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVPV
Meaning : spleen
Eurasiatic : *lVṗV ?
Afroasiatic : *la/ipʔ-; also *li/ubb- 'heart', probably just a variant
Austric : *limpa` spleen (?)
Reference : Peiros 1989, 129.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *la/ipʔ-
Meaning: inner organ; chest and belly with interior
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *li/apiʔ- 'adipose, fleshy tissue, fat; marrow, pith' (?)
Western Chadic: *(ma-)lap- 'spleen' 1, 'liver' 2
Saho-Afar: *ʔalef- 'spleen'
Low East Cushitic: *laṗṗ- 'heart' (rather <*lVb-) 1, 'chest' 2
Dahalo (Sanye): lafi 'lungs'
Omotic: *liṗ- 'belly' 1, 'heart' (rather <*lVb-)
Notes: In LEC and Om may originate from, or be contaminated with, *li/ubb- 'heart'.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-sho,afaset-lec,afaset-dhl,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 96
Proto-Semitic: *li/apiʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: fatty, fleshy tissue
Akkadian: lipû (lipiu, līpu, lēpu) 'adipose tissue, fat, tallow; marrow, pith' OB on [CAD l 202], [AHw 555]
Hebrew: PB liplūp (redupl.) 'glutinous substance, pus' [Ja 715].

    A plausible semantic shift from 'fat'

Arabic: lafiʔ-at- 'morceau de viande sans os' [BK 2 1009].

    Cf. laffāʔ- 'cuisse grasse, charnue' [ibid. 1008] synchronically to be analysed as an adjective of the "specific bodily features" pattern (faʕlāʔ-u) of lff 'avoir des cuisses fortes, grosses, charnues' [ibid. 1008]; historically, however, this term can be interpreted as a noun with *lfʔ radicals

Notes: Scarcely attested; meanings rather diverse.

    Cf. a likely related non-anatomic term in JUD liplūpā (redupl.) 'pulp, soft portion of cabbage' [Ja 715].

    Cf. also JUD lybh 'fat, butter' [Sok 281] (a variant root of the present one with b/p?).

    Note MND lupata 'an inner organ of the body?; joints, ligaments of the body?' [DM 234] (meaning uncertain)

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-hbr,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *(ma-)lap-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'spleen' 1, 'liver' 2
Sura: l̀lap 1 [JgS]
Angas: lap 1 [Fl]
Bokos: ma-laf 2 [JgR]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-sur,wchet-ang,wchet-bks,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *ʔalef-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'spleen'
Afar (Danakil): aleefu
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-afar,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *laṗṗ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'heart' 1, 'chest' 2
Oromo (Galla): laṗṗee 1, 2 (Gragg 262);
Notes: Otherwise <*labb-
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-oro,lecet-notes,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: lafi
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'lungs'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *liṗ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'belly' 1, 'heart'
Galila: liṗá 1
Ari: Ubamer liṗ/ḅ 2
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-gll,omoet-ari,

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