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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: kōng
Preclassic Old Chinese: khōŋ
Classic Old Chinese: khōŋ
Western Han Chinese: khōŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: khōŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: khōŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: khōŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: khwōŋ
Middle Chinese: khuŋ
English meaning : be empty, hollow
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пустой; пустота; в пустоте; в воздухе; воздушный; 2) сокр. воздушный флот, авиация; 3) опустеть; быть пустым; 4) бессодержательный; голословный; 5) попусту; 6) небо; 7) Кун (фамилия); [kòng] 1) свободное время; промежуток; 2) лазейка, щель; 3) вакансия; недостаток; 4) место, пространство; 5) пропустить (не явиться); оставить пустым (напр. клетку для иероглифа)
Comments: Also read *khōŋ-s, MC khùŋ (FQ 苦貢), Pek. kòng 'to exhaust'. As an object name, 'hole', usually read *khōŋʔ (MC khúŋ, FQ JY 苦動), although this reading is attested only since L. Zhou.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 116
Four-angle index: 111
Karlgren code: 1172 h
Go-on: kuu
Kan-on: kou
Japanese reading: kū;sora;aku;akeru;kara
Vietnamese reading: không
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-viet,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *qhōŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hole
Chinese: *khōŋ hollow, empty, *khōŋs empty space.
Tibetan: khuŋ hole, pit, hollow, cavity; khoŋ empty.
Burmese: ǝkhauŋh a cavity, hollow place, LB *khuŋx.
Kachin: khaʔ2-khoŋ2, (H) khoŋ a ditch.
Lushai: ōŋ a hole, gap.
Comments: PG *khùŋ hole; BG: Garo koŋ; Kham kuN. Cf. also OCh. 穹 *khʷǝŋ hollow, hole. Simon 15; Sh. 44; Peiros-Starostin 213; Coblin 71. STEDT 273-278 *kuŋ.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 642
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 通合三平東溪; B: 通合一去送溪
ZIHUI: A: 4500 2695; B: 4500 2699
Beijing: A: khuŋ 11; B: khuŋ 3
Jinan: A: khuŋ 11; B: khuŋ 3
Xi'an: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 3
Taiyuan: A: khuŋ 1; B: khuŋ 3
Hankou: A: khuŋ 11; B: kuŋ 3
Chengdu: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 3
Yangzhou: A: khɔuŋ 11; B: kɔuŋ 3
Suzhou: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 31
Wenzhou: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 31
Changsha: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 31
Shuangfeng: A: khaŋ 11; khǝn 11; B: khaŋ 31; kǝn 31
Nanchang: A: khuŋ 11; B: kuŋ 2
Meixian: A: khuŋ 11; B: khuŋ 11
Guangzhou: A: huŋ 11; B: huŋ 31
Xiamen: A: khɔŋ 11; B: khɔŋ 31
Chaozhou: A: khoŋ 11; B: khoŋ 31
Fuzhou: A: khuŋ 11 (lit.); köyŋ 11; B: khouŋ 31
Shanghai: A: khoŋ 1; B: khoŋ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: khuŋ 1; B: khuŋ 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *q(w)VŋV̄
Meaning: hole
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *qhōŋ
Burushaski: *qoŋ / *qaŋ
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *qoŋ / *qaŋ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: hole, cavity
Nagar: qoŋ, qaŋ
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVNV
Meaning : hole, cavity
Eurasiatic : *ḳVwVŋV
Sino-Caucasian : *q(w)VŋV
Austric : AN *lǝ(ŋ)kuŋ 'concave', AA *khVŋ id. (Peiros 1989)
Reference : NSC.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVwVŋV
Meaning: armpit
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *k`òbàni
Uralic: *konV (*kana) + *kaŋla
Dravidian: *kavŋ-
References: МССНЯ 370, ОСНЯ 1, 344-345; ND 1104 *ḲawingV 'shoulder joint, armpit'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`òbàni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: armpit
Russian meaning: подмышка
Turkic: *Kōjn
Mongolian: *koŋ-
Tungus-Manchu: *xobanī
Japanese: *kàpìná
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 345, Дыбо 316, Лексика 244. Mong. < *kowŋ- < *koban-gV; a secondary contamination with *köŋ- (q. v. *kĕ̀ŋi).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kōjn
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: armpit, bosom
Russian meaning: подмышка, пазуха
Old Turkic: qojɨn (Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qoj (MK)
Turkish: kojɨn
Tatar: qujɨn
Middle Turkic: qojɨn (AH)
Uzbek: qọjɨn
Uighur: qojɨn
Sary-Yughur: qoin
Azerbaidzhan: Gojun
Turkmen: Gojun
Khakassian: xojɨn
Shor: qojɨn
Oyrat: qojɨn
Halaj: qōn
Chuvash: xǝʷv, xü, dial. xüm
Yakut: xōj (xońń-)
Dolgan: konnok
Tuva: xoj
Kirghiz: qojɨn
Kazakh: qojɨn
Noghai: qojɨn
Bashkir: qujɨn
Balkar: qojɨn
Gagauz: qojnu
Karaim: qojun, qojɨn
Karakalpak: qojɨn
Kumyk: qojɨn
Comments: VEWT 280, EDT 631, Лексика 243-244, ЭСТЯ 6, 26-27, Stachowski 152.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *koŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hollow, cavity
Russian meaning: полость, яма
Written Mongolian: qoŋɣur, qoŋɣil (L 962), qoŋgil
Khalkha: xonxor, xongil
Buriat: xonǵō 'дупло'
Kalmuck: xöŋgḷ (КРС)
Ordos: xoŋxor
Monguor: GoŋGuloG 'petit vase rond, gobelet' (SM 122)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-mgr,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xobanī
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: armpit
Russian meaning: подмышка
Evenki: oɣonī, owońī
Even: oɣnị, ownị
Negidal: oɣonị
Literary Manchu: obix́a jali 'meat from the region of shoulderblades'
Ulcha: χawa(n)
Orok: χawanị
Nanai: χawanị
Solon: owonī
Comments: ТМС 2, 4, 6.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàpìná
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: arm
Russian meaning: рука (верхняя часть)
Old Japanese: kapjina
Middle Japanese: kàfìná
Tokyo: káina, kàina
Kyoto: káiná
Kagoshima: kainá
Comments: JLTT 433. The Kyoto accent is irregular.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 351
Proto: *konV (*kana) (? + ala)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: armpit
German meaning: Achselhöhle, Armhöhle
Finnish: kainalo 'Armhöhle'
Estonian: kaenal (gen. kaenla) 'Arm'
Saam (Lapp): Gȧi̯ńɛ̮лɛ̮ (Wfs.) 'Achselhöhle', kaiññel (T), kajñel-vuølańč (Kld.) id.
Udmurt (Votyak): kunul (S), kunǝ̑l (K) 'Achselhöhle, Achselgrube'
Komi (Zyrian): kunle̮s (V), kumle̮s (S), konvos (P), kunles (PO) 'Achselzwickel im Hemd', konuvt (P), kunul (PO) 'Achselhöhle, Armhöhle'
Khanty (Ostyak): kunǝŋ pĕtǝ (V), χŏnǝŋ pĕt (DN), χŏnǝm pȧ̆t (O) 'Achselhöhle, Achselgrube'
Mansi (Vogul): kalnā (TJ), kanǝl (KU P), χanǝl (So.) 'Armhöhle'
Hungarian: hón (dial. hóny, hany, hóln) 'Achsel, Achselhöhle', hónalj 'Achselhöhle'
Nenets (Yurak): śālʔ (U) 'Armhöhle'
Enets (Yen): séði (Ch.), séri (B)
Nganasan (Tawgi): kaĺiŋ
Selkup: qā̊lǝń (TaU), qāli (Ty.)
Kamass: kālǝ̑ŋ 'Achselhöhle'
Sammalahti's version: FU *koni
Addenda: Liv. kài̯nal, kāńal 'Achselhöhle, Arm'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kavŋ-
Meaning : armpit
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kavuŋ-kaṭ-
Proto-Telugu : *kavŋ-il-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kavŋ-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kavuŋ-kaṭ-
Meaning : armpit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kamukkaṭṭu
Tamil meaning : armpit
Kannada : kavuŋkuẓ, kaŋkuẓ, kaŋkaẓ, kaŋkuẓa, koŋkuẓ, koŋkar., koŋkaẓa
Kannada meaning : armpit
Kannada derivates : (Hal.) gaŋkǝlu armpit; (Hav.) kiŋkleḍe id.
Kodagu : kavŋkɨ
Kodagu meaning : vital spot
Tulu : kaŋkuḷa
Tulu meaning : armpit
Proto-Nilgiri : *kamkoḍ
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) karkileḍi armpit
Number in DED : 1234
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kamkoḍ
Meaning : armpit
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ganjguy, ganjgūḷy (?)
Toda : komkwɨṛ
Notes : The Kota form is unclear: on one hand, it is quite similar to the Toda one, on the other hand, -nj- and final -y/-ḷy are difficult to explain. Maybe this is a case of contamination with some other (unknown) stem. The reconstruction is based on the Toda form.
Number in DED : 1234
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kavŋ-il-
Meaning : breast, bosom; an embrace
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kauŋgili
Additional forms : Also kauŋgilincu to embrace, hug, press to the bosom; [1] kauŋgilinta, [2] kauŋgilimpu an embrace
Number in DED : 1234
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kavŋ-
Meaning : armpit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : kavkor, kavkoḍ
Ollari Gadba : kalgil "lap"
Additional forms : Also Parji kavŋgil, kaŋgil lap
Number in DED : 1234
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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