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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *eńa
Meaning: a k. of vessel
Russian meaning: вид сосуда
Turkic: *ańak
Mongolian: *ajaga(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *eńukē
Comments: Владимирцов 293. A Western isogloss. Mong. may be < Turk. (TMN 2, 171, Щербак 1997, 95-96).
Proto-Altaic: *ènŋù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: young of an ungulate
Russian meaning: детеныш копытного животного
Turkic: *ạnkaj
Mongolian: *unagan
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)enŋe-
Japanese: *ùmà
Comments: All forms reflect a suffixed *ènŋù-kV. A certain phonetic problem is raised by u- in Mong.; one has to assume PM *unu-gan (cf. the early TM loans: Evk. unukān 'foal', Sol. unuxũ 'kid'; see on it Poppe 1974, 128) with vocalic assimilation from earlier *anu-gan. Otherwise the etymology seems quite plausible, and appears to explain the Jpn. form better than the usual theory of Chinese borrowing (neither MC mạ́, nor OC mrāʔ can explain the initial um- in Japanese).
Proto-Altaic: *enu ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to beware, attention
Russian meaning: остерегаться, внимание
Turkic: *anu-
Mongolian: *(h)an-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)en-te-
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *eŋsV
Meaning: shoulder, back part
Russian meaning: плечо, задняя часть шеи
Turkic: *eŋse
Korean: *ǝ̀skǝ́i
Comments: A Turk.-Kor. isogloss. For the Turk. form cf. alternatively TM *pisa (see Лексика 239).
Proto-Altaic: *ĕp`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mother, elder sister, aunt
Russian meaning: мать, старшая сестра, тетя
Turkic: *apa
Mongolian: *ebej
Tungus-Manchu: *ebke
Japanese: *pàpà
Comments: Цинциус 1972a, 32-37, Poppe 43. One of the rather widely spread nursery kinship words.
Proto-Altaic: *ép`á
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: breast, rib
Russian meaning: грудь, ребро
Mongolian: *eb-
Korean: *ǝp-
Japanese: *ámpárá
Comments: Lee 1958, 108 (Mong.-Kor.); a loanword in Kor. < Mong. is not excluded.
Proto-Altaic: *ep`ò
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bread, food
Russian meaning: хлеб, пища
Turkic: *Epej
Mongolian: *aɣag / *haɣag
Tungus-Manchu: *epe
Korean: *páp
Japanese: *ǝpǝ-mǝnǝ
Comments: The Kor. form (perhaps also the Dagur form with x-) reflect an expressive reduplication.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀p`o
Meaning: big
Russian meaning: большой
Turkic: *Ap / *Ep
Mongolian: *aba-
Korean: *opɨ-
Japanese: *ǝ̀pǝ̀-
Comments: SKE 174, Martin 239, АПиПЯЯ 102 (with literature), 274. Cf. also *ebo (Jpn. reflects a merger of these two roots).
Proto-Altaic: *ép`V
Meaning: grandfather
Russian meaning: дед
Mongolian: *ebü-gen
Tungus-Manchu: *epu
Korean: *ǝ̀p-
Comments: SKE 3, Poppe 103. Cf. *áp`a.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be
Russian meaning: быть
Turkic: *er-
Mongolian: *ere-
Tungus-Manchu: *eri-
Japanese: *àr-
Comments: Cf. Mong. *a- (MMong. a-) a defective auxiliary verb. This, together with the frequent absence of -r- in Turkic paradigms, may speak in favour of reconstructing monosyllabic *er for PA.
Proto-Altaic: *érga ( ~ -u)
Meaning: a k. of box, enclosure
Russian meaning: вид ящика, огороженное место
Turkic: *erge
Mongolian: *(h)ergi-neg
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)erge
Korean: *ǝ̀rí
Comments: VEWT 47. The Turkic forms are attested late and those ending in -ne may actually be < Mong.; however, the Oyr. and Kaz. forms can hardly be explained as loans.
Proto-Altaic: *èrì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of fruit
Russian meaning: вид плода
Turkic: *erük
Mongolian: *üril
Korean: *ɨrɨm
Japanese: *ìtàpi
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 292. In TM cf. perhaps Evk. dial. erbeɣu 'name of a shrub with yellow flowers, used instead of tea' (ТМС 2, 462). Mong. *üril 'plum' should be kept distinct from *ölir 'small apple' (see under *ójle); however, since the sequences -l-r and -r-l in Mong. are liable to metathesis, it is difficult to decide which protoforms are actually reflected in *üril and *ölir. In any case, labialization in Mong. is probably secondary here (either *üril < *irü-l or *ölir < *elör < *erö-l).
Proto-Altaic: *erka
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to wrap, tie
Russian meaning: заворачивать, завязывать
Turkic: *Arka-
Mongolian: *arga-
Korean: *ǝ̀rk-
Comments: Cf. Nan. erĩ 'rope for binding up the yurt with ritual purposes' (ТМС 2,463), suggesting that *-k- may be originally a suffix. Despite Щербак 1997, 162, Mongolian forms are hard to explain as borrowed from Turkic.
Proto-Altaic: *eŕmu
Meaning: a k. of grass, wormwood
Russian meaning: вид травы, полынь
Turkic: *eŕen
Mongolian: *erme
Korean: *òrmí
Comments: The root denotes wormwood, artemisia in Turkic and Mongolian; in Korean the meaning is not quite certain (probably some sort of shepherd's purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris). The phonetic match is precise, anyway, and the reconstruction seems reliable.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ́ro
Meaning: clean
Russian meaning: чистый
Turkic: *ạrɨ-
Mongolian: *ariɣ-
Japanese: *áráp-
Comments: EAS 88, KW 24, Владимирцов 199, Poppe 79, Ozawa 170-171, Мудрак Дисс. 182. Cf. TM forms: Orok ārŋa- 'to clean (with a brush)' (ТМС 1, 50), Evk. ertikē- 'clean up' (ТМС 2, 465). Despite TMN 1, 129, Щербак 1997, 100, Mong. can hardly be regarded as borrowed < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀rù ( ~ -ŕ-)
Meaning: skin
Russian meaning: кожа
Mongolian: *ar[a]-su
Tungus-Manchu: *eruke-
Japanese: *ùrǝ̀kǝ̀ (/*i-; ~ -ua-)
Comments: The TM and Jpn. forms reflect a common derivative *ĕ̀rù-k`V (diminutive).
Proto-Altaic: *eso
Meaning: unripe, sour
Russian meaning: незрелый, кислый
Turkic: *ẹsür-
Mongolian: *es-
Tungus-Manchu: *esi-kin
Japanese: *àsì-
Comments: Cf. perhaps also (although semantically dubious) OJ asa- 'to fade'.
Proto-Altaic: *ĕ́t`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder relative
Russian meaning: старший родственник
Turkic: *Ata / *Ete
Mongolian: *ečige
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)eti-
Korean: *àtắ
Japanese: *tǝtǝ, *ti
Comments: Цинциус 1972a, 37-40. Poppe 51, 56, АПиПЯЯ 296, Дыбо 6; a weak attempt of disproving the etymology see in TMN 1, 188. A "nursery" word, represented in all Altaic subgroups. Ramstedt (KW 129) compares the Mong. form with Turk. *eči / *eče 'elder brother', but it is obviously closer related to *ata (Mong. *eči-ge = Turk. *ete-ke / *ata-ka). The form *ete-k`e, reflected in Turkic, Mongolian and Tungus, is probably an archaic diminutive, and Doerfer's (TMN 2, 9) attempt to treat the Turk. form as a compound ata 'Vater' + äkä 'älteres Geschwister' is certainly faulty.
Proto-Altaic: *èt`i ( ~ -t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thread, to quilt
Russian meaning: нить, стегать
Turkic: *Etek
Tungus-Manchu: *etu- / *ute-
Japanese: *ìtuá
Comments: Дыбо 15.
Proto-Altaic: *ḗbǯo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to see, understand
Russian meaning: видеть, понимать
Turkic: *ȫ(j)-
Mongolian: *üǯe-
Tungus-Manchu: *eǯe-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The medial cluster with *-b- should be reconstructed in order to account for labialization in Turk. and Mong. However, the Turkic form may be alternatively compared with Mong. ojun 'thought' - if the latter is not related to PT *ōd 'thought' (as suggested by Владимирцов 285 and supported in Мудрак Дисс. 103).
Total of 2805 records 141 page

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