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\data\china\bigchina
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yě
Preclassic Old Chinese: lhiajʔ
Classic Old Chinese: lhiáj
Western Han Chinese: lhiáj
Eastern Han Chinese: zhä́
Early Postclassic Chinese: zhá
Middle Postclassic Chinese: zhá
Late Postclassic Chinese: zhá
Middle Chinese: já
English meaning : postposed particle, marking a pause as well as stating an objective fact.
Russian meaning[s]: 1) тоже, также; 2) союз, связывает сказуемые с одинаковой глагольной частью, часто удваивается и; и... и...; 3) и то; 4) и в этом случае, все же, все равно; 5) ставится после наречий, указывая на оттенки решимости, твердости или колебания говорящего; 6) в вэньяне оформляет обособленный член предложения (или целое словосочетание); 7) в вэньяне модальная частица, оформляет предложения, подчеркивая оттенки вопроса, восклицания, категоричности и др.; 8) в вэньяне оформляет предложения с предметным сказуемым при отсутствии связки
Comments: Min dialects point here to Late Old Chinese *jh- (cf. Xiamen, Chaozhou ia6, Fuzhou ia5), which is impossible in a xie-sheng series with lateral affricates: therefore, *lh- is to be reconstructed. The resonant reconstruction is also probable because of attested reductions of 也 + 乎 *lhiajʔ + wā to *lhia (耶) or *lha (與) q.v.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 5
Four-angle index: 7254
Karlgren code: 0004 g
Jianchuan Bai: li4
Dali Bai: le4
Bijiang Bai: le4
Shijing occurrences: 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 23.3, 26.3, 37.1, 37.2, 45.1, 45.2, 46.1, 46.2, 46.3, 47.2, 50.3, 51.3, 58.3, 58.4
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: bù [fǒu] [fōu] [fěi] [pēi] [bī] [biáo]
Preclassic Old Chinese:
Classic Old Chinese:
Western Han Chinese:
Eastern Han Chinese: pwǝ
Early Postclassic Chinese: piw
Middle Postclassic Chinese: pǝw
Late Postclassic Chinese: pǝw
Middle Chinese: pǝw
Fanqie: 夫優 [a] 甫有 [b] 夫物 [g] 福烏 [h]
Rhyme class: 月 [a] 有 [b] 尤 [cg] 紙 [d] 支 [ef] 物 [g]
English meaning : not, the indicative-objective negative
Russian meaning[s]: 1) отрицание перед прилагательными, модальными глаголами, связками; перед прочими глаголами выражает одновременно оттенки настоящего или будущего времени, в противоположность 沒; не; 2) в диалоге нет!; 3) разг. на конце вопросительного предложения заменяет сказуемое в отрицательной форме; 4) инфикс невозможности совершения действия в сложных глаголах с суффиксами; 5) с последующим 也, 亦 если не..., даже если не...; [fǒu] вэньянь нет, или нет, вм.
Shuowen gloss: 鳥飛上翔不下來也. 從一. 一猶天也. 象形. 凡不之屬皆從不.
Comments: This OC negation has no certain ST parallels; although there are some vague traces of a *p-negation in WC languages (perhaps also in Yenisseian, where it, however, should have regularly merged with the more widely spread *m-negation), it may be a purely Chinese innovation. Cf. PAN *bak (? *ba) 'negative marker'.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 1
Four-angle index: 7799
Vietnamese reading: bất
Jianchuan Bai: -pio1
Dali Bai: pio1
Shijing occurrences: 1.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 10.2, 17.1, 17.2, 17.3, 21.1, 21.2, 22.1, 22.2, 22.3, 24.1, 26.1, 26.2, 26.3, 26.4, 26.5, 29.1, 29.2, 29.4, 30.3, 30.4, 31.2, 33.4, 34.2, 35.1, 35.3, 35.5, 35.6, 36.1, 36.2, 37.3, 39.1, 39.3, 42.1, 43.1, 43.2, 44.2, 45.1, 45.2, 46.1, 46.2, 46.3, 47.1, 47.2, 51.3, 52.1, 52.2, 52.3, 54.2, 54.4, 55.1, 55.2, 55.3, 58.2, 58.4, 58.5
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jīn
Preclassic Old Chinese: k(r)ǝm
Classic Old Chinese: k(r)ǝm
Western Han Chinese: k(r)ǝm
Eastern Han Chinese: k(r)ǝm
Early Postclassic Chinese: kim
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kim
Late Postclassic Chinese: kim
Middle Chinese: kim
Fanqie: 基音
Rhyme class:
English meaning : now, today, this (day, month, year)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) теперь, ныне; сегодня; современный; 2) этот; данный, настоящий
Shuowen gloss: 是時也. 從亼. 從フ. フ古文及.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 9
Four-angle index: 2787
Karlgren code: 0651 a-e
Shijing occurrences: 20.2_
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yuán
Preclassic Old Chinese: ŋon
Classic Old Chinese: ŋwan
Western Han Chinese: ŋwan
Eastern Han Chinese: ŋwan
Early Postclassic Chinese: ŋwan
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ŋwǝn
Late Postclassic Chinese: ŋwǝn
Middle Chinese: ŋʷǝn
English meaning : be at the head, first, eldest, principal
Russian meaning[s]: 1) голова; глава; главный, первый; 2) начало; начальный, первоначальный; основной, исконный, вм. 原; 3) юань; доллар; иена; монета; 4) большой; 5) совершенный; 6) мат. неизвестное; 7) цикл в 60 лет; 8) юаньская (монгольская) династия (1280 - 1367 гг.); монгольская эпоха; 9) 13-е число (в телеграммах); 10) Юань (фамилия)
Comments: Standard Sino-Viet. is nguyên; Viet. ngọn may reflect a variant *ŋon-s. For *ŋ- cf. Xiamen guan2, Chaozhou ŋueŋ2, Fuzhou ŋuoŋ2, Jianou ŋüiŋ2.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 10
Four-angle index: 7292
Karlgren code: 0257 a-c
Vietnamese reading: ngọn
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yāo
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʔaw
Classic Old Chinese: ʔaw
Western Han Chinese: ʔaw
Eastern Han Chinese: ʔaw
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʔew
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʔew
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʔew
Middle Chinese: ʔew
English meaning : be delicate, slender
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пышный, разросшийся; 2) юный; нежный; свежий; [yǎo] 1) хилый; согнутый; 2) умереть в молодости
Shuowen gloss: 屈也.從大.象形.凡夭之屬皆從夭. [494]
Comments: Used also in the binome 夭紹 *ʔaw-d(h)awʔ 'beautiful'. Also read *ʔawʔ, MC ʔéw(FQ 於兆), Pek. yǎo 'to kill prematurely'. Since Late Zhou the meaning 'be beautiful; consider beautiful, love' was usually written by the character 妖. The latter also means 'ghostly, supernatural': whether it is just a semantic development of the original meaning or an independent word is not quite clear.

    Since Late Zhou the character is also attested with a reading *ʔāwʔ, MC ʔấw (FQ 烏皓), Pek. ǎo 'young, young age' (possibly related to *ʔawʔ 'kill prematurely' = 'kill in a young age').

Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 37
Four-angle index: 5007
Karlgren code: 1141 a-c
Vietnamese reading: yêu
Shijing occurrences: 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 32.1_
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: huàn
Preclassic Old Chinese: g(h)ʷrēns
Classic Old Chinese: g(h)wrēnh
Western Han Chinese: gwrjānh (~ ɣ-)
Eastern Han Chinese: gwriānh (~ ɣ-)
Early Postclassic Chinese: gwiẹ̄̀n (~ ɣ-)
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gwiẹ̄̀n (~ ɣ-)
Late Postclassic Chinese: gwiẹ̄̀n (~ ɣ-)
Middle Chinese: ɣwạ̈̀n
English meaning : deceit
Russian meaning[s]: 1) иллюзия, фантазия, химера; призрачный, обманчивый; 2) преходящий, меняющийся; изменяться; 3) фокусы, магия
Radical: 52
Four-angle index: 4169
Vietnamese reading: huyễn
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yuè
Preclassic Old Chinese: ŋot
Classic Old Chinese: ŋwat
Western Han Chinese: ŋwat
Eastern Han Chinese: ŋwat
Early Postclassic Chinese: ŋwat
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ŋwǝt
Late Postclassic Chinese: ŋwǝt
Middle Chinese: ŋwǝt
Fanqie: 玉掘
Rhyme class:
English meaning : moon; month
Russian meaning[s]: 1) луна, месяц; полумесяц; полукруглый, в форме полумесяца; 2) месяц (календарный); луна (месяц лунного календаря); месячный; ежемесячный; 3) 6-е число (в телеграммах); 4) Юэ (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 闕也. 大陰之精. 象形. 凡月之屬皆從月.
Comments: Min forms: Xiamen geʔ8, ŋeʔ8, Chaozhou gueʔ8, Fuzhou ŋuok8, Jianou ŋüɛ8.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 74
Four-angle index: 3466
Karlgren code: 0306 a-f
Vietnamese reading: nguyệt
Jianchuan Bai: ŋua6
Dali Bai: ua6
Bijiang Bai: -ŋu4, ŋua6
Shijing occurrences: 26.5, 29.1, 29.2, 29.3, 29.4, 33.3
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: quǎn
Preclassic Old Chinese: khʷīnʔ
Classic Old Chinese: khwī́n
Western Han Chinese: khwjǝ̄́n
Eastern Han Chinese: khwiǝ̄́n
Early Postclassic Chinese: khwiḗn
Middle Postclassic Chinese: khwiḗn
Late Postclassic Chinese: khwiḗn
Middle Chinese: khwíen
Fanqie: 去選
Rhyme class:
English meaning : dog
Russian meaning[s]: собака, пес; собачий; по-собачьи; вежл. мой (о детях)
Shuowen gloss: 狗之有縣蹄者也. 象形. 孔子曰. 視犬之字. 如畫狗也. 凡犬之屬皆從犬.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 94
Four-angle index: 4947
Karlgren code: 0479 a-d
Vietnamese reading: khuyê`n
Jianchuan Bai: khuã1
Dali Bai: khua1
Bijiang Bai: qhõ1
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: wèi
Preclassic Old Chinese: mǝts
Classic Old Chinese: mǝć
Western Han Chinese: mǝś
Eastern Han Chinese: mwǝś
Early Postclassic Chinese: mwɨś
Middle Postclassic Chinese: mwɨ̀j
Late Postclassic Chinese: mwɨ̀j
Middle Chinese: mwɨ̀j
English meaning : the 8th Earthly Branch; not yet, still not
Russian meaning[s]: 1) не (обычно с прошедшим временем); еще не (в литературном языке, отрицание соответствующее устному 沒); ...или нет (соответствует 否); 2) 8-ой из циклических знаков; август; время с 1 до 3 часов дня; 3) 5-е число (в телеграммах)
Shuowen gloss: 味也.六月�味也.五行木老於未.象木重枝葉也.凡未之屬皆從未. [74]
Comments: In Viet., mùi (a more archaic loan) is used only in the sense '8th Earthly Branch'; the meaning 'not yet' is read with a standard Sino-Viet. reading vị. One of the OC *m-negations; see 無 (etymologically 未 is a contraction < 毋 *mǝ + 既 *kǝć < *kǝp-s). For *m cf. Chaozhou bue6, Xiamen be6, Fuzhou muoi6.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 75
Four-angle index: 5327
Karlgren code: 0531 a-f
Vietnamese reading: mùi
Shijing occurrences: 10.1, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 34.3, 58.3
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zhèng
Preclassic Old Chinese: teŋs
Classic Old Chinese: teŋh
Western Han Chinese: teŋh
Eastern Han Chinese: ćeŋh
Early Postclassic Chinese: ćèŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ćèŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: ćèŋ
Middle Chinese: ćèŋ
English meaning : to be straight, correct; govern; determine
Comments: Also read *teŋ, MC ćeŋ, Mand. zhēng 'center of target; first (month)' ( = Viet. chiếng, although the Viet. tone corresponds rather to MC ćèŋ). Viet. chiếng is colloquial; regular Sino-Viet. is chính. A loan from another dialectal source is probably Viet. giêng 'the first month of the lunar year'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 0833 j-n
Vietnamese reading: chiếng
Jianchuan Bai: ?tuĩ4
Dali Bai: cer3, ?tui5
Bijiang Bai: ?te4, tui4
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: mù
Preclassic Old Chinese: mhuk
Classic Old Chinese: mhuk
Western Han Chinese: mhǝuk
Eastern Han Chinese: mhǝuk
Early Postclassic Chinese: mhɨuk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: mhuk
Late Postclassic Chinese: mhuk
Middle Chinese: mük
English meaning : eye, eyesight
Russian meaning[s]: 1) глаза; зрение; видеть своими глазами; смотреть; уставиться; 2) именовать, обозначать; указатель, каталог, индекс; подзаголовок; тема; 3) комментарий
Comments: For *mh cf. Meixian muk7.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 109
Four-angle index: 1667
Karlgren code: 1036 a-c
Vietnamese reading: mục
Shijing occurrences: 57.3
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: xuè
Preclassic Old Chinese: whīt
Classic Old Chinese: whīt
Western Han Chinese: whjǝ̄t
Eastern Han Chinese: whiǝ̄t
Early Postclassic Chinese: whiēt
Middle Postclassic Chinese: whiēt
Late Postclassic Chinese: whiēt
Middle Chinese: ɣwiet
English meaning : cave
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пещера, грот; нора; 2) могила, склеп
Comments: For initial *wh- cf. Fuzhou coll. khok8 (equivalent of the lit. hiek8) (the reflex is missing in Starostin 1989, p. 122), reflecting "Common Chinese" *ɣhʷiet.
Radical: 116
Four-angle index: 6363
Karlgren code: 0409 a-b
Vietnamese reading: huyệt
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: nián
Preclassic Old Chinese: nhīn
Classic Old Chinese: nhīn
Western Han Chinese: nhjǝ̄n
Eastern Han Chinese: nhiǝ̄n
Early Postclassic Chinese: nhiēn
Middle Postclassic Chinese: nhiēn
Late Postclassic Chinese: nhiēn
Middle Chinese: nien
Fanqie: 泥奸
Rhyme class:
English meaning : harvest, crop; year
Russian meaning[s]: 1) год; годы, возраст; 2) урожай; 3) Новый год; новогодний; 4) Нянь (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: ?
Comments: For *nh cf. Shaowu nin7, Chaozhou hĩ2.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 51
Four-angle index: 2547
Karlgren code: 0364 a-d
Vietnamese reading: niên
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yè
Preclassic Old Chinese: lats
Classic Old Chinese: lać
Western Han Chinese: laś
Eastern Han Chinese: źaś
Early Postclassic Chinese: źeś
Middle Postclassic Chinese: jèj
Late Postclassic Chinese: jèj
Middle Chinese: jèj
English meaning : to drag, trail
Russian meaning[s]: тянуть, тащить; брать на буксир, вм.
Radical: 73
Four-angle index: 6893
Karlgren code: 0338 a
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: ér
Preclassic Old Chinese:
Classic Old Chinese:
Western Han Chinese:
Eastern Han Chinese: ńǝ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ńɨ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ńɨ
Late Postclassic Chinese: ńɨ
Middle Chinese: ńɨ
English meaning : particle by verbalizing, as, and yet, and
Russian meaning[s]: 1) а; да; и; но (союз, связывающий сказуемые или целые предложения); 2) служебное слово в вэньяне, ставится перед сказуемым а) чтобы показать, что субъект сказуемого не тот же, что в предыдущем словосочетании (рекомендуется перевод при помощи местоимения второго лица); б) чтобы отделить основное сказуемое предложения от предыдущего обстоятельственного построения часто служебного типа; в отрицательных предложениях отрицание предшествует обстоятельственной конструкции и при переводе подлежит переносу к сказуемому; 3) в обстоятельствах места и времени заменяет 以; 4) оформляет наречия, вм. 然; 5) на конце предложения вм. 而以; 6) древн. твой, ты; 7) если, вм.
Comments: For *n- cf. Min forms: Xiamen ʒi2, Chaozhou zɨ2, Fuzhou i2. The original meaning of the character is 'moustache, whiskers' (attested since Late Zhou); in some early texts (Shujing) also used for the second person pronoun *nhǝ 'thou' (see 爾, 乃).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 126
Four-angle index: 3668
Shijing occurrences: 23.3, 26.5, 41.1, 41.2, 41.3, 42.1, 47.2, 52.1, 52.2, 52.3, 54.2, 58.4
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: xuè
Preclassic Old Chinese: swīt
Classic Old Chinese: w̥īt
Western Han Chinese: w̥jǝ̄t
Eastern Han Chinese: w̥iǝ̄t
Early Postclassic Chinese: hwiēt
Middle Postclassic Chinese: hwiēt
Late Postclassic Chinese: hwiēt
Middle Chinese: xwiet
English meaning : blood
Russian meaning[s]: 1) кровь; кровавый, окровавленный; кровопролитный; 2) кровное родство; кровный
Comments: Viet. also has tiết 'animal blood' - an archaic loan (with t- regularly representing OC *s-, which was already lost in MC).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 143
Four-angle index: 734
Karlgren code: 0410 a-c
Vietnamese reading: huyết
Jianchuan Bai: sua6
Dali Bai: sua6
Bijiang Bai: sua6
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: chuàn
Preclassic Old Chinese: kʷrāns
Classic Old Chinese: kwrānh
Western Han Chinese: kwrānh
Eastern Han Chinese: kwrānh
Early Postclassic Chinese: kwạ̄̀n
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kwạ̄̀n
Late Postclassic Chinese: kwạ̄̀n
Middle Chinese: kwạ̀n
English meaning : custom, usage
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пронизывать, нанизывать; связанный, непрерывный; ряд; 2) связать(ся); сообща; 3) пролезть; добиваться (чего-л.) нечестным путем; 4) родственные отношения; родня; 5) играть (на сцене); 6) переливать
Comments: *kʷrāns is the oldest reading of the character attested. Later for the meaning 'custom, to be accustomed' one got to use another character, 慣, while 串 acquired the reading *thons, MC ćhwèn, Mand. chuàn (Sino-Viet. xuyến), Go, Kan sen 'to bore, string' ( = 穿 q.v.). Standard Sino-Viet. for 'custom, to be accustomed' is quán. See 貫, 慣.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 2
Four-angle index: 2632
Karlgren code: 0159 e
Go-on: kuwen
Kan-on: kuwan
Japanese reading: ken;kan;tsuranuku;ugatsu;kushi
Vietnamese reading: quen
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yě
Russian meaning[s]: 1) плавить (переплавлять) металл; печь для плавки металлов; 2) очаровательный, обольстительный; 3) украшаться
Radical: 15
Four-angle index: 1440
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jué
Preclassic Old Chinese: kʷēt
Classic Old Chinese: kwēt
Western Han Chinese: kwjāt
Eastern Han Chinese: kwiāt
Early Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Late Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Middle Chinese: kwiet
English meaning : to open a passage
Russian meaning[s]: 1) разобрать плотину, пустить воду; прорвать плотину; 2) решать; решение; привести в исполнение приговор (решение); 3) решительный, непоколебимый; решительно, неизменно; перед отрицанием решительно [не], ни в коем случае [не]; 4) казнить; 5) расставаться, вм.
Comments: A somewhat later meaning is ('to open a passage, break through' >) 'to decide, determine, decisive'.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 85
Four-angle index: 5095
Karlgren code: 0312 b
Vietnamese reading: quyết
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zào
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʒ(h)ūʔ
Classic Old Chinese: ʒ(h)ū́
Western Han Chinese: ʒ(h)ǝ̄́w
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒ(h)ǝ̄́w
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒ(h)ǝ̄́w
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒ(h)ā́w
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒ(h)ā́w
Middle Chinese: ʒấw
English meaning : soft, not ripe
Russian meaning[s]: 1) мыло; 2) кормушка для лошадей; 3) низшие служащие (учреждения); древн. раб; 4) черный
Comments: Original meaning is 'acorn, black-dyeing fruit' (attested during LZ); during LZ used also for homonymous *ʒ(h)ūʔ 'menial; stable; 12 horses'.
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 106
Four-angle index: 7191
Karlgren code: 1054 a-b
bigchina-reading,bigchina-comment,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-viet,bigchina-viet,bigchina-viet,bigchina-viet,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-comment,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-viet,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-reading,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-viet,bigchina-comment,bigchina-reading,bigchina-viet,bigchina-comment,
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