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\data\semham\semet
Number: 2440
Proto-Semitic: *ḥimār-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: donkey
Akkadian: imēru 'donkey, male donkey' OAkk. on [CAD i 110], [AHw. 375]. In OAkk. (outside proper names) only as the logogram ANS̆E, the earliest syllabic attestations belong to the OA letters. Note that in the MA text LKA 62:2,5 imēru denotes a wild ass (i-me-ri šadî). In lexical lists imēru is used to denote a mechanical device of a ship (GIS̆.ANS̆E.MÁ = imēri elippi) as well as a part of a battering ram (GIS̆.ANS̆E.GUD.SI.AS̆ = imēri MIN; cf. WS parallels below). As name of a measure (homer) i. is found in Mari, MA, NA and Nuzi (apparently northern Mesopotamian usage no doubt connected with or influenced by the WS practice for which see elsewhere below).
Ugaritic: ḥmr 'asno' [DLU 177]. Widely used in administrative texts but almost never found in literary passages (the only exception seems to be 1.14 III 17: lḳl nhḳt ḥmrh 'because of the braying of his asses'). As name of a measure thought to occur in 5.3 (ḥmr w ʔizml ʔaḥt 'ḥ. and one sack') and, with a derived meaning 'heap, pile', in 1.5 I 19 (npš blt ḥmr 'my throat consumes [food] in heaps', so e.g. [Tropper UG 789, 808]; on p. 559, however, Tropper perfers the faunal meaning 'ass': "Oder verzehrt mein Rachen etwa nicht wahrlich einen (ganzen) Esel (?)").
Hebrew: ḥămōr 'he-ass' [KB 327], pB. [Ja. 476] (also f. ḥămōrā [Ja. 476]). The name of a measure ḥōmär [ibid. 330] is usually thought to be derived from this noun (note that differently from Akk. imēru the Hbr. faunal term itself is not used with this meaning).
Aramaic: Off. ḥmr 'donkey, ass; f. she-ass' [HJ 383] (cf. [PY XXXV], [Kott. 203]). Plm. ḥmr 'donkey, ass' [HJ 383] (cf. [PAT 365]).
Judaic Aramaic: ḥămārā (f. ḥămārtā) 'ass' [Ja. 480], ḥămār 'donkey; a mechanical contrivance' [Sok. 207], ḥmrh (det. ḥmrh, det. ḥmrth) 'she-ass' [ibid. 208], ḥmwrh 'herd of donkeys' [Sok. 205].
Syrian Aramaic: ḥmārā 'asinus', ḥmārtā 'asina' [Brock. 241], [PS 1309].
Mandaic Aramaic: hamara 'pack-animal, ass, donkey' [DM 122], also humar 'jackass' [ibid. 135], himara 'ass' [ibid. 145].
Arabic: ḥimār- 'âne; âne sauvage, onagre', ḥimārat- 'ânesse' [BK 1 491], [Lane 641], [LA IV 212] (cf. [Hommel 117-121]). Also taḥmūr- 'onagre' [BK 1 491], yaḥmūr (= ḥimāru l-waḥši) [LA IV 215].
Epigraphic South Arabian: Sab. ḥmr 'ass; wild ass, onager' [SD 68]. Min. ḥmr 'âne; âne sauvage' [LM 48]. Both ESA terms are extensively treated in [Sima 96-99]. In most passages ḥ. denotes a domesticated ass (e.g., R 3943/2: t_ll ḳnyhmw ʔʔblm wbḳrm wḥmrm wḳnym 'he took their cattle as boo- ty: camels, large cattle, asses and small cattle'). The meaning 'wild ass' is present in one Sab. inscription (BR-Yanbuq 47/7: wṣydw ʕly ms1bʔhmw s1bʕt wʕs2ry wʔḥdy mʔtm ḥmrm 'during their journey they hunted down 127 wild asses'. Since the Min. ins- cription B. Int 42/3 where ḥ. is attested with this meaning ac- cording to [LM 48] is unpublished, it is impossible to check the valitity of this translation.
Gurage: Cha. Eža Muh. Msq. Gog. ǝmar, Gyt. ǝm_ā̃r, Enm. ǝ̃m_ār, Sod. ämar, Wol. Zwy. umar, Sel. umār, End. äwãn 'donkey' [LGur. 51]. According to Leslau, all the Gur. forms are Arabisms which is difficult to prove.
Notes: Cf. the MSA verbal root ḥmr 'to tame a riding beast': Mhr. ḥǝmūr 'to tame, break (a horse)' [JM 181], Hrs. ḥemōr 'to tame, break (a riding beast)' [JH 60], Jib. ḥõr 'to tame, break, do- mesticate (an animal)' [JJ 111] (compared to the present root in [Kott. 203]). As often assumed, ESA ḥmr 'kind of alliance, treaty' (Sab. [SD 68], [Biella 181], Min. [LM 49]) is derived from the present root (cf. [Höfner 82-3] as well as [Noth], a special study dea- ling with the sacrifice of an ass as a ritual act accompanying treaty ceremonies in Mari). The widespread opinion according to which the present term is derived from the verbal root *ḥmr 'to be red' (cf., e.g., [Hommel 136], [Sima 96]) cannot be regarded but as a popular etymology. The animal name is extremely widespread throughout Semitic whereas the PS status of the colour term is very doubt- ful since its clear attestation is limited almost entirely to Arabic ḥmr (for possible Ethiopian cognates see [LGz. 234]; for a detailed study of several homonymous roots ḥmr in Semitic see now [Bulakh 66ff.]). On the other hand, there are serious doubts that 'red' is indeed a colour specific of the wild or the domes- tic ass (cf. cautious remarks in [Nagel-Bollweg 161]). СТОИТ ПОСМОТРЕТЬ VEENHOF TRADE P. 8 [Fron. 31]: *ḥimār- 'asino' (ESA, Arb., Syr., Hbr., Ugr., Akk.); [KB 327]: Hbr., Arm., Arb., Ugr., Arb., ESA, Akk.; [DLU 177]: Ugr., Hbr., Arm., Arb., Akk.; [Firmage 1152]: Akk., Hbr., Ugr., Arm., ESA, Arb.; [Hommel 117]: *ḥimāru (Arb., Hbr., Arm., Akk.).
Number: 2441
Proto-Semitic: *ḥVbVS-
Meaning: kind of insect
Syrian Aramaic: ḥabšuštā 'scarabaeus' [Brock. 213], [PS 1188-9] (also ḥabšūšā).
Arabic: ḥubšiyyat- 'espèce de fourmis grandes et noires' [BK 1 368], [LA 6 278].
Tigre: ḥabuš (coll.), ḥabušt (n.un.) 'a species of locusts' [LH 79].
Notes: Phonetically (Arb. š ~ Syr. š) and semantically somewhat doubtful. Any connection with Central Semitic terms for 'beetle' (Hbr. pB. ḥippūŝīt 'scarabee, beetle; prh. scorpion' [Ja. 459], [Levy WTM II 96] (-š-); Jud. ḥippūŝītā 'scarabee, beetle; prh. scorpion' [Ja. 459], [Levy WTM II 96]; Arb. ḫinfis-, ḫunfas-, ḫunfasāʔ-, ḫunfаs-at-, ḫunfus-at- 'scarabée noir' [BK 1 642], [Fr. I 533], [Lane 817-8], [LA VI 73-4])? Cf. Syr. ḥarpuštā 'scarabaeus niger' [Brock. 258], [PS 1382].
Number: 2442
Proto-Semitic: *ḥV(n)g-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: kind of worm
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ḥǝngugu 'kind of black worm living in water' [ТА 40].
Jibbali: ḥaz̃ɔ́t 'large, blind black segmented centipede oftenest seen during the rainy season [JJ 106].
Notes: Poorly attested, Common Semitic status questionable though the semantic coincidence is too remarkable to be neglected.
Number: 2443
Proto-Semitic: *hVm-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: large wild cat
Akkadian: umāmu (emammu, emāmu) 'Tiere, Getier' OB on [AHw. 1412]. Meaning correspondence 'wild animal' ~ 'lion' can be illustrated by Gez. ʔarwe vs. Hbr. ʔaryē (cf. No. ...). At the same time, note that the meaning 'lion' for emāmu in the date formules of Zimri-lim of Mari was established in [Dossin 167] (with reference to [Landsberger Fauna 30] where additional arguments in favour of this meaning are given).
Arabic: hawwām- 'lion' [BK 2 1460], [Fr. IV 419], [TA XXXIV 127].
Tigre: hǝmmäm 'leopard' [LH 7].
Notes: Different strategies of triconsonantization in various languages (though Akk. and Tgr. exhibit a remarkable similarity). It is difficult in the present context to avoid mentioning of Akk. ūmu 'ein Mytischer Löwe' [AHw. 1420]. The term is known exlusively from SB lexical lists (= Sum. UG). It is always written with u4 and, possibly for this reason, united by von Soden with ūmu 'day' (as well as ūmu 'Sturm'). A priori, this equation does not look very convincing semantically but the whole problem requires further study so that direct inclusion of ūmu into the pesent root would be clearly premature.
Number: 2444
Proto-Semitic: *ḥVrb-
Meaning: chamaeleon
Akkadian: ḫarbabillu (urbabillu) 'chameleon' SB [CAD ḫ 248], [AHw. 358]. Note Akk. < *ḥ. FAUNA! LANDSBERGER!
Arabic: ḥirbāʔ- 'сaméléon mâle' [BK 1 403], [Lane 541], [LA I 307].
Notes: Comparison of the two terms, fully identical semantically and having in common the first three radicals, appears almost inevitable though the -ll- in the Akk. form remains enigmatic (influence of another Akk. term for chameleon, ayarillu). [AHw. 358]: Akk., Arb.
Number: 2445
Proto-Semitic: *ḥVsVn-
Meaning: kind of insect
Ugaritic: ḥsn 'saltamontes, langosta' [DLU 182]. Though the term is a hapax in 1.14 II 29-31, the proposed meaning is safely derived from the parallelism with ʔirby 'locust' (km ʔirby tškn šd // kḥsn pʔat mdbr 'it encamps in the field like locusts // like ḥ. at the edge of the desert').
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ḥasen 'butterfly' [LGz. 245].
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ḥasen 'termite' [LGz. 245] (not in [Bass.]).
Amharic: ašän, ašen 'termites which have wings and leave the nest at the onset of the rainy season; small locusts' [K 1181].
Notes: Hbr. ḥāsīl 'certain stage in the life cycle of locust, or cockroach' [KB 337], pB. 'name of a species of locusts' [Ja. 487] is often connected with the Ugr. and Eth. terms quoted above (so, e.g., [KB 337], [DLU 182], [Sasson 414]) but -l vs. -n is fully irregular. No other etymology for the Hbr. term is at hand. Comparison to Arb. ḥisl- 'petit lézard d'Afrique, dès qu'il vient d'éclore' [BK 1 427], [Fr. I 380], [Lane 569], [LA XI 151] is semantically weak (moreover, if the Arb. term is to be connected with Ebl. ʔax(NI)-sa-lu-um /ḥašlum/ = KU6.MUS̆ [MEE IV 283], 'un tipo di lucertola' [Fron. Ebl. 166], it is *š, not *s which is behind Arb. -s-). Note that in Dt 28.38 a verbal root ḥsl 'to eat away' appears in connection with locusts (zäraʕ rab tōṣī(ʔ) haŝŝādǟ ūmǝʕaṭ täʔä̆sōp kī yaḥsǝlännū hāʔarbǟ 'you will make the field produce much crop, but you will gather few since the locust will eat it away'); for a Canaanite parallel in EA 263:13 (ḫa-sí-lu ālānu bēlīya 'the cities of my lords are desolated') cf. [Held 398-401]. The verb is likely denominative but a reverse development (locust as "devourer") is also possible (cf. a Jewish interpretation quoted in [Ja. 488]: 'the locust is called ḥāsīl because it devastates (ḥōsēl) everything'). If the verbal root is original, it might have influenced a Proto-Hebrew *ḥasīn- 'kind of locust' which acquired -l by popular etymology (as plausibly suggested in [Huehnergard 1999 90]). [LGz. 245]: Gez., Eth., Ugr. (Hbr. is also menioned); [KB 337], [DLU 182]: Ugr., Hbr.
Number: 2446
Proto-Semitic: *ḥVwār-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: young camel
Arabic: ḥuwār-, ḥiwār- 'petit de chameau récemment né, ou jusqu'à l'époque du sevrage' [BK 1 511], [Lane 666], [LA IV 221] (cf. [Hommel 151-2]).
Tigre: ḥǝwar 'young (of camel or donkey) [K 1267].
Mehri: ḥǝwōr 'very young camel' [LM 195].
Harsusi: ḥewōr 'camel a few days old' [JH 64].
Notes: An areal South Semitic term, Common Semitic status doubtful. Arabic loans in Tgr. and the MSA cannot be ruled out. Sab. ḥwry (ʕAbadān 1/37) and Hdr. ḥwrw (Ja 949/2) are found in passages lising wild animals killed in a hunt (cf. [Sima 99-100]). Translation 'young camel' is therefore exluded; rather, connection with Arb. ḥawar- 'taureau' [BK 1 510], [LA IV 221] is to be supposed (importantly, in both cases . appears in close connection with bḳr '[wild] cow' (i.e., Oryx). This identification may also be applied to the enigmatic ḥr in the Min. inscription M 367/5 ḥr appears as a sacrificial animal (wd_bḥ ʕt_tr d_ḳbṣ̂ ʕs1t ḥr 'and he slaughtered one . for DN'). Ultimate relationship of Arb. ḥawar- and the ESA forms to the present root cannot be excluded (originally 'young of a household animal'?). СЮДА НАДО ПОСМОТРЕТЬ ROBIN-GAJDA
Number: 2447
Number: 2448
Proto-Semitic: *kabŝ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: ram
Akkadian: kabsu 'young (male) sheep' NA [CAD k 23], [AHw. 418], kabsatu 'young ewe' [ibid.]. The terms are found in Neo-Assyrian business documents as well as in the vassal treaties of Asarhaddon (Wiseman Treaties 551). Irregular -s- together with the late attestation may point to an Aramaism. However, kabsu is now detected in the late OB letter AbB 9 162:12 (UDU ka-ab-si ḳallūtim 'small male lambs' [AHw. 1565]) which makes such an assumption somewhat less attractive.
Hebrew: käbäŝ 'young ram' [KB 460], kibŝā 'young ewe-lamb' [ibid.]; pB. [Ja. 611]. The masc. form is common in sacrifial contexts but surprisingly unfrequent outside such passages. The fem. form as well as the metathetic variants käŝäb 'young ram' [KB 501] and kiŝbā, kaŝbā 'young ewe-lamb' [ibid.] are rare.
Aramaic: Sam. kbš 'lamb' [Tal 377], kšb id. [ibid. 413].
Syrian Aramaic: kebšā 'vervex' [Brock. 817] (not in [PS] ПРОВЕРИТЬ).
Mandaic Aramaic: kabiš 'ram' [DM 195].
Arabic: kabš- 'bélier' [BK 2 855], [Fr. IV 5], [WKAS k 30], [Lane 2588], [LA IV 338] (cf. [Hommel 235-6]).
Mehri: kábŝ '(male) lamb' [JM 202].
Jibbali: kɔbŝ 'male lamb' [JJ 125], kebŝét 'female lamb' [ibid.].
Harsusi: kabŝ 'lamb' [JH 66].
Soqotri: kobŝ 'bélier' [LS 214].
Notes: Syr. and Mnd. forms are probably Arabisms while the Sam. ones are almost certainly Hebraisms. [Fron. 29]: *kabŝ- 'montone giovane' (Arb., Hbr., Akk.); [KB 460]: Hbr., Arm. (арабизм), Akk., Arb., Soq. (mistakenly quoted as kobš); [LS 214]: Soq., MSA, Arb., Hbr., Akk., Syr.; [Firmage 1152]: Akk., Hbr., Syr., Arb.; [Hommel 235]: Arb., Syr., Akk., Hbr. (according to Hommel, irregular sibilant reflexation in Akk. and Arm. is due to a PS variation *kabŝ/š/s-, which is rather unprobable).
Number: 2449
Proto-Semitic: *karr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: ram
Akkadian: kirru (or girru) 'a breed of sheep (?)' OAkk. [CAD k 410], kerru [AHw. 468]. In earlier literature the term was thought to occur as an Akkadism in Sum. (Ur III) documents (2 UDU kir-ru-um etc.). In the Addenda to [AHw.] (p. 1568), other occurrences are quoted: 2 ki-ru '2 moutons' (ARM 19 182:2, archaic Mari), kà-ri (HUCA 40 70:7, OA). The form ka-ra-am in ARM 8 13 r 11 is also identified by von Soden with the present root which is rather doubtful (the passage reads ka-ra-am īkulū kāsam ištû; cf. the rendering 'they have eaten from the (same) platter, drunk from the (same) goblet' in [CAD k 239]). !!! ARMT 26/1 422 ka-ka-ra-am
Ugaritic: kr 'cordero' [DLU 222]. The term is a hapax in 1.4 VI 47 but the meaning is clearly deduced from the parallelism with ḫrpt 'ewes' (špḳ ʔilm krm yn // špḳ ʔliht ḫprt [yn] 'he provided the "gods-rams" with wine // provided the "goddesses-ewes" [with wine]). Cf. [Del Olmo Sheep 185-6].
Hebrew: kar '(young) ram' [KB 496], pB. [Ja. 663]. A relatively unfrequent, predominantly poetic term. That k. denotes a young animal can be deduced from the parallelism with ʕăgālīm 'calves' in Am 6.4 (hāʔōkǝlīm kārīm miṣṣō(ʔ)n // waʕă- gālīm mittōk marbēḳ 'those eating k. from the small cattle // and calves from the stall'). In Ez 4.2 and 21.27 k. is used to denote a kind of siege engine (a meaning shift well known in Lat. aries, Eng. battering ram and elsewhere).
Aramaic: Off. kr 'sheep' [HJ 534]. Not very reliable, alternative readins are possible ( cf. discussion [ibid.]). Sam. kr 'ewe' [Tal 407].
Notes: Parallels in other languages not very reliable: - Arb. kawr- 'troupeau nombreux (de chameaux, de boeufs)' [BK 2 942], [Fr. IV 69], [LA V 155], 'herd (of camels or ga- zelles, containing 150-200 animals)' [WKAS k 429]; - Amh. kʷǝrrǝkʷǝr 'call for calling goats' [K 1397]. - Amh. kurma 'bull (not castrated)' [K 1384], Har. korma 'male (animal), brave' [LHar. 94], Muh. kʷärma 'the young male of a sheep bigger than ṭäbbʷät, male (animal), bull' [LGur. 350]. [KB 496], [DLU 222]: Hbr., Ugr., Akk.
Number: 2450
Proto-Semitic: *kawdan-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: mule
Akkadian: kūdanu (kūdannu) 'a type of mule' OAkk. on [CAD k 491] (extensive discussion), [AHw. 498]. The term is widely used in late periods only (NA in particu- lar, both in royal inscriptions and private documents). In earlier texts k. is quite unfrequent (in OAkk., as PN only). The meaning 'mule' is safely deduced from passages stressing k.' in- fertility (kī ša zēru ša ANS̆E.GÌR.NUN.NA laššuni 'in the same way as there is no progeny of k.' Wiseman Treaties 537). ONE WONDERS WHETHER in THE WELL-KNOWN passage from Gilgamesh .... (ibrī kūdanu ṭardu) k. really denotes a mule or rather a wild ass, a well-known synonym of swiftness in ANE poetic language. Cf. [Salonen Hyppologica 76-8].
Eblaitic: gú-da-núm /kūdanum/ = ANS̆E.EDEN [MEE 4 038] (cf. [Kreb. 45], [Civil Ebla 90]).
Ugaritic: kdnt 'mula' [DLU 211]. Highly uncertain (Hapax in the scribal exercise 5.23:8, a list of words out of context).
Aramaic: Off. kwdn 'mule' [HJ 492]. Plm. kwdn 'mule' [HJ 492] (cf. [PAT 372]).
Judaic Aramaic: kūdǝnā (pl. kūdanyān, kūdanwān) 'mule' [Ja. 617], [+++]
Syrian Aramaic: kūdanyā, kūdǝnā (pl. kūdnǝwātā) 'mulus', kūdantā 'mula' [BK 318-9], [PS 1680].
Mandaic Aramaic: kudana, kdana 'mule' [DM 203, 205].
Arabic: kawdan-, kawdaniyy- 'né d'un étalon arabe et d'une ju- ment non-arabe (cheval); métis; cheval de train; mulet; élé- phant' [BK 2 876], [LA XIII 356], [WKAS k 87].
Tigrai (Tigriñña): Cf. mäkada name of the small Abyssinian horse LT 134
Notes: A chain of borrowings (Akk. > Arm. > Arb.) suggested in [Zimmern 50] cannot be excluded but needs further argumentation (cf. [PAT 372]: "probably simply cognates"). The same is true about the supposed non-Semitic origin of Akk. kūdanu assumed in [Salonen Hyppologica 76-8] (though, admittedly, the term does not seem to be deeply rooted in Akk., both of the early syllabic attestations coming from Mari letters). [DLU 211]: Ugr., Arm., Akk., Arb.; [Brock. 318]: Syr., Arm., Akk. (the Arm. forms are treated as Akkadisms).
Number: 2451
Proto-Semitic: *kurkiy-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: goose, crane
Akkadian: kurkû 'goose' [CAD k 561], 'eine Haushuhnart (?)' [AHw. 510] (corrected to 'Gans' in the Addenda [ibid. 1568]). The term has been extensively treated in a special study [Landsberger kurkû]. The interpretation of k. as 'hen' (quited widespread in earlier literature and accepted in [AHw.]) appears completely untenable for Landsberger (also comparison of k. to IE terms for 'hen' suggested by von Soden). At the same time, he carefully examines the evidence for tranlating k. as 'crane' (with references to earlier works by Campbell Thompson, Tallquist, Wiseman) but definitely prefers the interpretation 'goose'. As one can deduce from fn. 52, Landsberger regards the WS terms as Akk. loans but finds no argument to explain the meaning shift 'goose' > 'crane'. Cf. also [Salonen Vögel 216ff.].
Judaic Aramaic: kurkǝyā 'crane' [Ja. 625].
Syrian Aramaic: kurkǝyā 'grus' [Brock. 346], [PS 1826].
Mandaic Aramaic: kurkia 'crane' [DM 209].
Arabic: kurkiyy- 'grue' [BK 2 888], [WKAS k 136], [LA X 481].
Geʕez (Ethiopian): kʷarāki, korki 'crane' [LGz. 291].
Notes: According to [Zimmern 51], the Arm. forms are borrowed from Akkadian. The Akk. form, in its turn, is usually regarded as a borrowing from Sum. KUR.GI ([CAD], [AHw.], [LGz.]). In fact, only an Arabism in Gez. can be supported by convincing argumentation: while korki perfectly fits the popular Arb. pronunciation of the classical kurkiyy-, kʷarāki is likely a blend of the sg. kurkiyy- (which alone can account for Gez. kʷǝ-) and the broken pl. karākiyy-. [LGz. 291]: Gez. (< Arb.), Arm., Arb., Akk. (< Sum.).
Number: 2452
Proto-Semitic: *kVnn(Vm)-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: a harmful insect
Eblaitic: ga-na-du-um = Sum. UH_ [MEE 4 1002]. Regarded as a variant form of ga-ma-tum /ḳalmatum/ in [Fron. Ebla 177] but can be plausibly interpreted as /kannatum/.
Hebrew: kēn 'gnat' [KB 483], kinnām 'gnats' [ibid. 484]; pB. kinnā 'vermin, louse' [Ja. 633], kǝnimmā 'vermin, moth' [ibid. 649]. The first form is reliably attested only in the plural (Ex 8.12-14 and Ps 105.31, as one of the Egyptian plagues; note that both full and defective spellings of the pl. suffix are found: knym/knm). The existence of the sg. form kēn postulated in [KB] for Is 51.6 and Nu 13.33 is far from obvious (especially for the latter passage where the traditional rendering of kēn as 'so' perfectly fits the context: wannǝhī bǝʕēnēnū kaḥăgābīm wǝ- kēn hāyīnū bǝʕēnēhäm 'we looked like grasshoppers for our own eyes and so were we for their eyes'). The form kinnām is found twice in Ex 8.12-14. Outside the Hebrew Bible, cf. Sir 10.11: bm()[w]t ʔdm ynḥl rmh // wtwlʕh kinnywm wārmŝ 'after his death, man takes maggot as inheritance // as well as worm, k. and kreeping creatures'.
Judaic Aramaic: kinnā 'louse, vermin' [Ja. 633], [Levy WTM II 349].
Mehri: kǝnǝmūt 'louse' [JM 212].
Jibbali: s̃ínít (pl. kúnúm) id. [JJ 133], ǝnkǝmním 'to be lousy' [ibid. 132].
Harsusi: kenemōt id. [JH 69].
Soqotri: kónem 'pou' [LS 221].
Notes: The element -ām is traditionally regarded as a fossilized suffix (see references in [KB]). Note that the presence of -Vm in MSA is a clear witness of its Proto-Semitic antiquity. Further relationship to forms with consonantal roots ḳlm/ḳml/klm is often assumed (e.g. [KB 484], [LS 221]), in our opinion, without sufficient grounds (criticism towards this comparison see already in [BDB 488]). [KB 484]: Hbr., Soq.; [LS 221]: Hbr., Soq., MSA
Number: 2453
Proto-Semitic: *kVS-
Meaning: a (mythical) aquatic reptile
Akkadian: kušû 'an aquatic animal' SB [CAD k 602], [AHw. 517]. A special study of this term is [Cohen kušû] where k. is identified with a large chelonia-turtle, a dangerous carnivore according to the descriptions quoted [ibid.]. Cohen does not support earlier suggestion by Landsberger according to which k. denoted two different animals, a crab and a shark (cf. [MSL VIII/2 89- 93]). At least in some passages k. seems to denote a mythical animal (cf. the rendering of šinni kušî as 'a dragon's tooth' in CAD) which is noteworthy in view of the Eth. pa- rallels.
Geʕez (Ethiopian): kaysi 'serpent, dragon' [LGz. 301].
Tigre: käyǝs 'snake, dragon' [LH 422].
Notes: Not quite reliable since the Akk. term is usually regarded as a Sum. loan (e.g., [AHw. 517]) which seems tenable (note that the Akk. term is used almost exclusively in lexical lists and bilinguals.
Number: 2454
Proto-Semitic: *kVwVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: kind of fish
Judaic Aramaic: kawrā 'fish in the cauf; fish in general' [Ja. 617].
Mandaic Aramaic: kauara 'fish' [DM 196].
Geʕez (Ethiopian): kawwara 'to set traps, catch fish' LGz 300
Soqotri: kúwerhor 'espèce de poisson [LS 215] (cf. also kér 'kind of shark' [NP 52]).
Number: 2455
Proto-Semitic: *ḳaʔ(ḳaʔ)-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: kind of bird
Akkadian: ḳaḳû 'a bird' OB on [CAD ḳ 124], [AHw. 901]. The earliest attestations are in the OB letter AbB 6 179:17 (ḳa-ḳu-ú/ḳá-ḳé-e, as a harmful bird). Cf. [Salonen Vögel 243ff.] (compared to Jud. ḳaḳway). According to Salonen, "ein schwalbe- nähnlicher Vogel". Cf. also ḳaḳânu 'a bird' LL [CAD ḳ 99] (on possible relationship between the two terms cf. [Salonen Vögel 243]).
Eblaitic: ḳú-ḳí-a-nu-um = A.BALAG.MUS̆EN [MEE IV 620]. Identified with the present root in [Dombrowski 221] (ḳuḳiyānum 'cormorant') and [Conti 1993 ...]. Cf. further [Bo- nechi 265]
Hebrew: ḳāʔāt (ḳāʔat) 'an unclean species of bird frequenting ruins and the desert; a type of owl (?): scops owl or jackdaw' [KB 1059], pB. ḳāʔāt (pl. ḳāʔōt) 'pelican' [Ja. 1307]. In the dietary prohibitions of Lv 11.18 and Dt 14.7 (between tinšämät and rāḥām(ā)) and the lists of animals frequenting ruins (Is 34.11 and Zeph 2.14; in Ps 102.7, paralleled by kōs).
Judaic Aramaic: ḳātā, ḳā(ʔ)tā 'pelican' [Ja. 1434]. Also ḳā(ʔ)ḳā(ʔ) 'goose' [Ja. 1306], ḳuḳyātā 'name of a clean bird (passing as forbidden in Palestine)' [ibid. 1340], ḳāḳā, ḳāḳǝtā 'pelican' [ibid. 1409], ḳaḳway 'name of an unclean bird' [ibid. 1409], ḳḳ 'pelican' [Sok. 501].
Syrian Aramaic: ḳāḳā 'pelecanus' [Brock. 688], [PS 3708].
Notes: Cf. also Hbr. pB. ḳīḳ 'name of a bird, pelican' [Ja. 137], Jud. ḳūʔay 'name of an unclean bird' [Ja. 1323], Amh. ḳoḳ 'partridge' [K 761], ḳʷaḳʷate 'bird the size of a crow which has black and white feathers' [K 762]. Not quite reliable as independent onomatopoetic formations in particular languages are not unlikely. If still reconsructible as PS, reduplication may be a feature appearing already on the Common Semitic level.
Number: 2456
Proto-Semitic: *ḳaʕḳaʕ-
Meaning: frog
Gurage: Eža Msq. ḳʷäč̣ä 'frog' [LGur. 471], Cha. Enm. Gyt. ḳʷänč̣ä, End. ḳōnč̣ä id. [ibid. 486] (with inserted -n-).
Mehri: ḳāḳāt 'frog' [JM 220].
Jibbali: E. Jib. ḳʕáḳʕát id. [JM 220] (cf. Jib. ʕaḳʕáḳǝt id. [JJ 11], with metathesis).
Number: 2457
Proto-Semitic: *ḳʷāʕ-
Meaning: crow
Syrian Aramaic: ḳāʕā 'corvus' [Brock. 655].
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ḳʷāʕ 'raven, crow' [LGz. 417].
Tigre: ḳǝwaʕ 'raven, crow' [LH 256].
Notes: Semantically less evident parallels see probably in Arb. ḳaʕḳaʕ-, ḳuʕḳuʕ- 'sorte d'oiseau aquatique au plumage blanc et noir et au bec long' [BK 2 784], [LA VIII 288] (ʕuḳʕuḳ-), Tgr. ḳoḳʕay 'sorte d'oiseau' [LH 248], амх. ḳʷaḳʷate (ḳʷaḳʷäte) 'bird of the size of a crow which has black and white feathers' [K 762] (unless to No. ...). Cf. also Arb. ʕaḳʕaḳ- 'pie' [BK 2 319], [LA X 260] compared to Arm. Anc. ʕḳh (KAI 222A 33) in [Fitzmyer 90] ('magpie', cf. also [HJ 882]). [Brock. 655]: Syr., Gez.
Number: 2458
Proto-Semitic: *ḳaml- ~ *ḳalm-
Meaning: louse
Eblaitic: ga-ma-tum = UH_ [MEE 4 1022]. Interpreted as /ḳalmatum/ 'pidocchio' in [Fron. Ebl. 177]. As rightly pointed out by Fronzaroli, a normalization /kalmatum/ is equally possible which would yield a form identi- cal to kalmatu which is well known from Akkadian (cf. below). This interpretation is adopted in [Civil Ebla 90]. For a tenta- tive interpretation of ga-na-du-um, another Ebl. correspondence to Sum. UH_ cf. No. ...
Aramaic: Anc. ḳml 'louse' [HJ 1013]. Hapax in KAI 222 A 31: ...wyšlḥn ʔlhn mn kl mh ʔkl bʔrpd wbʕmh [yʔkl p]m ḥwh wpm ʕḳrb wpm dbhh wpm nmrh wss wḳml ... 'And may the gods send everything which can eat against Arpad and his people! Let the snake's mouth eat, and the scorpion's mouth, and the bear's mouth, and the leopard's mouth as well as moth and louse...' (cf. [Fitzmyer 88-9] and especially [Tawil 61]).
Judaic Aramaic: ḳalmǝtā 'vermin' [Ja. 1378], [Levy WT II 363].
Syrian Aramaic: ḳalmā 'pediculus; animalculum frumento infestum' [Brock. 668], [PS 3635].
Arabic: ḳaml- 'poux', ḳummal- 'petites fourmis; petites sauterelles qui n'ont pas encore d'aile' [BK 2 816], [Fr. III 500] (also ḳamāl- 'pediculus'), [LA 11 568-9].
Epigraphic South Arabian: Sab. ḳmlt 'insect pests, locusts (?)' [SD 105]. Until recently this term was known from one inscription only, of doubtful authenticity (C 174/4: wl wgybhmw bn bn kl ḳmltm wtḫybm 'in order to protect them from every kind of pest and drought') but now it is attested also in MAFRAY-al-Bayḍāʔ 100/7 (cf. [Sima 129ff.] for details). Sab. ḳlm, ḳlmt 'insect pest, locusts (?)' [SD 105]. Qat. ḳlm 'Lausbefall' [Sima 131]. More details on the ESA forms see in [Sima 131ff.] (in par- ticular, the only Qat. attestation Bāfaqīh-Bāṭāyiʕ 7/2: bn kl ḳlmm 'from every harmful insect'). A related verbal form h-ḳlm 'to be ravaged (land) by insect pests' [SD 105] seems to be at- tested in S̆araf ad-Dīn 8/13 (not very reliable according to [Si- ma 131]).
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ḳʷǝmāl, ḳǝmāl 'louse' [LGz. 432].
Tigre: ḳämlät id. [LH 237]. Note ḳomäl 'poux' [ibid.] (according to d'Abbadie).
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ḳumal id. [Bass. 288].
Amharic: ḳǝmal id. [K 700].
Gurage: Msq. Gog. Sod. ḳǝmal, Sel. Wol. ḳumal, Cha. Eža ḳǝmar, Gyt. ḳǝm_ār, Zwy. ḳǝmāy, Muh. ḳǝme, Enm. ʔǝ̃m_ār, End. ʔǝwān 'louse' [LGur. 481].
Notes: Cf. the verbal root *ḳml 'to grow mouldy, putrid, rotten': Syr. ḳǝmal 'maciem passus est; mucorem duxit' [Brock. 672], Arb. ḳml 'être couvert de points noirs (se dit de la tige de certains végétaux)' [BK 2 816], [Fr. III 500], [LA XI 568]. Hbr. ḳml (at- tested in Is 33.9 and 19.6) may also belong here, especially if the translation 'to be infested with lice' is accepted (an alternative interpretation 'to become black, blacken' is preferred in [KB 1108-9]). Cf. Mnd. ḳiluma 'corruption, putrefaction' [DM 410]. Phonetically and semantically similar forms with non-empha- tic k in Akkadian and Aramaic (according to [Zimmern 52], Ara- maic forms are Akkadisms) are put in connection with the present root by many scholars (v. references below; for a sceptical eva- luation of this approach see [Sima 131], [HJ 513]): Akk. kalmatu 'parasite, louse (on animals, plants and human beings)' OAkk. on [CAD k 86], [AHw. 426]. In Old Akkadian as a proper name only. The oldest attestations may be found in the OA and OB letters CCT 2 30:29 and TCL 17 2:21 (both describe grain which is kalmatam lapit/laptat 'affected by k.'). References from Mari are collected and analysed in [Lion-Michel 720-2]. Se- veral varieties of k. are found in lexical lists; Anc. klmh 'parasite, louse' [HJ 513]. Supposed to be attes- ted in KAI 222 A 31 (cf. above) where kl mh (usually understood as 'everything that') is thought to represent klmh (v. espe- cially [Tawil 60-2]). This approach is rejected in [Fitzmyer 88-9] ("but that is not to be accepted") without sufficient ar- gumentation. Jud. kalmā, kalmǝtā 'vermin' [Ja. 645], [Levy WT I 367], [Levy WTM 341], klmh 'vermin' [Sok. 261]; Sam. klmym 'gnat' [Tal 391]. Hbr. kinnām and related forms are hardly connected with the present root in spite of the common opinion, v. No. ... . [Fron. 297]: *ḳalm-(at-) 'pidocchio' (Gez., Arb., Syr., Hbr. /ḳml/, Akk. /kalmatu/); [Sima 131]: ESA, Arb., Gez., Hbr. (ḳāmal; apparently a verbal form for which see above), Arm.; [LGz. 432]: Gez., Eth., Arb., ESA (ḳlmt); Hbr., Arm. (also kalmǝtā), Syr. (ḳalmā), "related to Hbr. kinnām, Soq. konem, Mhr. konem"; [Brock. 668]: Syr., Jud. (ḳalmǝtā, kalmǝtā), Arb., ESA (ḳmlt), Gez., Akk. (kalmatu), Hbr. (kinnām), Soq. (konem).
Number: 2459
Proto-Semitic: *ḳāriʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'partridge' 1,'kind of bird' 2, 'crane' 3, 'chicken' 4, 'crow' 5, 'bee-eater' 6
Hebrew: ḳōrē(ʔ) 'partridge' [KB 1132], pB. [Ja. 1341]. In 1S 26.20 (yāṣā(ʔ) mäläk yiŝrāʔēl lǝbaḳḳēš ʔät-parʕōš ʔäḥād kaʔăšär yirdōp haḳḳōrē(ʔ) bähārīm 'ныне, да не падет кровь моя на землю вдали от лика Господнего; воистину, погнался царь Израиля за одной-единственной блохой, будто преследует он куро- патку в горах'), а также в сложном пассаже провербиального ха- рактера Jr 17.11 (ḳōrē(ʔ) dāgar wǝlō(ʔ) yālād // ʕōŝǟ ʕōšär wǝ- lō(ʔ) bǝmišpāṭ 'куропатка высиживает яйца, но не имеет потомства // [таков] накапливающий богатство без закона').
Judaic Aramaic: ḳōrēʔā 'partridge' [Ja. 1341] (also ḳōrā 'heron; young bird' [Ja. 1341], ḳwr 'a bird with a long beak' [Sok. 483]).
Arabic: ḳāriy-at-, ḳāriyy-at- 'sorte d'oiseau aux jambes courtes, au bec long et au plumage du dos vert, qui présage la pluie (aux Arabes)' [BK 2 731], [LA XV 180].
Amharic: ḳʷǝrǝyye (ḳuriyyä) 'migrating crane; large white crane with a long beak' [K 738].
Notes: Cf. a number of bird names based on the biconsonantal *ḳVr- throughout Semitic: - Arb. ḳarr- 'poulet' [BK 2 699], [LA V 84]; - Gez. ḳāḳer 'crow' [LGz. 439], Amh. ḳʷǝra (ḳura) 'crow, ra- ven' [K 718], Sel. ḳure, Wol. ḳuri, End. hēḳurä, Sod. ḳürä, Gog. Muh. Msq. kurä, Eža Cha. Gyt. End. kʷǝrä 'crow, *disobedient (?)' [LGur. 495]; - Tgr. ḳǝrḳǝr 'a bird, the so-called bee-eater' [LH 241], Tna. ḳärḳärrä 'passeraceo che ha l'istinto di guidare il cacciatore al luogo dove si trova il miele' [Bass. 292], Amh. ḳǝrḳǝrre 'a small bird about the size of the warda-dove which has chestnut plumage and a pointed beak and guides people to where wild beehives are' [K 725]. [KB 1132]: Hbr., Arb.
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