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Basque etymology :

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\data\sinocauc\basqet
Proto-Basque: *ei=har̄ / *lei=hor̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 dry 2 withered, stiff 3 dry (land) 4 dry (animate beings , plants) 5 dry (animals, bones)
Bizkaian: igar 5, legor 3
Gipuzkoan: igar 5, legor 3
High Navarrese: igar, ear 1
Low Navarrese: eihar 1, 2, leihor 1, 3
Salazarese: ear 1
Lapurdian: eihar, ihar 1, 2, leihor 1, 3
Zuberoan: éihar 2, 4
Roncalese: éxar 4
Comments: See note to *a=gor̄. The original distinction seems to have been *ei=har̄ [animate] / *lei=hor̄ 'imanimate'.
Proto-Basque: *-eka
Meaning: one
Bizkaian: amaika, amaka
Gipuzkoan: amaika
High Navarrese: amaika
Low Navarrese: hameka
Lapurdian: hameika, hameka, amaika
Zuberoan: hãmẽ́ka
Roncalese: améka
Comments: The morpheme exists only in the Bsq word for 'eleven', *hama-eka, if this originally meant '10+1'. Cf. *hama-bi '12' ('10+2'), etc. Trombetti and Chirikba match it with PWC *ḳǝ [singulative] > Abkhaz a-ḳǝ́ 'one', Abaza za-ḳǝ 'one', etc.
Proto-Basque: *eɫhe
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 cattle, livestock 2 herd, flock 3 group, gang, throng
Bizkaian: (arc) elli 2, 3
Gipuzkoan: ele 1, 2
High Navarrese: (Esteribar) ele 1, 2
Lapurdian: elhe 1, 2
Zuberoan: elhi 3
Roncalese: eli 3
Comments: Bsq *heɫhe > *eɫhe by the ‘one-aspirate’ rule (Michelena 1961: 211-12).
Proto-Basque: *elhi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 finger 2 (finger-)ring 3 thumb 4 thimble
Bizkaian: el-aztun, el-eztun, er-aztun 2, er-koro 3, (Orozko) er-kolo, or-kolo 3, (Arratia) or-kolo, or-koro 3
Gipuzkoan: el-aztun, er-aztun, err-aztun 2
High Navarrese: eri 1, er-aztun 2
Low Navarrese: erhi 1, eri-beatz 3, erh-aztun 2
Salazarese: eri 1, er-ko 4
Lapurdian: erhi 1, er(h)-aztun 2, (Ainhoa) err-aztun 2
Baztanese: eri 1
Aezkoan: eri 1, eri-beatz 3
Zuberoan: érhi 1, erh-áztün 2
Roncalese: eri 1, eri-beatz 3, er-ko 4, (Uztárroz) eri-ko 4
Comments: Bsq does not tolerate two aspirates in the same word, usually keeping the last, so *elhi < *helhi = PEC *kwīlʡɨ 'hand'. Underlying *l is supported by the BZK and GIP allomorph el- and by the soft /r/ of erhi, eri,, though some forms have secondarily developed a trilled /r̄/ in composition: GIP erraztun, LAB erreztun 'ring' (Michelena 1961: 331). Comparison of Bsq *elhi with PEC *kwīlʡɨ 'hand' is also possible, though phonetically somewhat less probable.
Proto-Basque: *(ema)-ste
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 woman 2 married woman, wife 3 fiancée
Bizkaian: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gei 3
Gipuzkoan: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gai 3
High Navarrese: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gai 3
Low Navarrese: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gai 3
Salazarese: ema-zte 1
Lapurdian: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gai 3
Aezkoan: ema-zte 1
Zuberoan: ema-zte 2, ema-zte-gei 3
Roncalese: ema-zte 1, ema-zte-gei 3
Comments: For the first element see *ema- 'female'. According to Trask (1997: 271) emazte means 'woman' in three Pyrenean dialects (RNC, AZK, SAL), 'wife' elsewhere. A traditional etymology (since Schuchardt) derives *emaste from *ema- + *gaste 'young', though the actual Bsq meanings do not support the idea of 'young'.
Proto-Basque: *eme / *ema-, *ama
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 female 2 woman 3 woman (married or widow) 4 woman (married) 5 mother 6 girl
Bizkaian: eme 1, emakume, emakuma 2, emazte 4, ama 5
Gipuzkoan: eme 1, emakume 2, emazte 4, ama 5
High Navarrese: eme 1, emazte 4, ama 5
Low Navarrese: emazte 4, ama 5, (Baigorri) emakume 6
Salazarese: emazte 2, emakume 6
Lapurdian: emakume 2, emazte 4, ama 5
Baztanese: emakume 2
Aezkoan: emazte 2
Zuberoan: emazte 3, ama 5
Roncalese: emakume 2, emazte 4, ama 5
Comments: For *ema-ste see *-ste. Trask (1995) mentions the supposed derivation from Romance (Occitan heme 'female'), but *eme seems to be deeply imbedded in Bsq and is thus of a much older origin (PSC *HV̆mV́).
Proto-Basque: *e=aici
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to milk (a cow)
Gipuzkoan: jetxi
High Navarrese: (Goizueta) jetzi
Low Navarrese: deitzi
Salazarese: saitsi
Lapurdian: deitzi
Baztanese: deitzi
Zuberoan: jaitzi, jaitsi, jeitsi
Comments: The initial d- in some forms is thought to be secondary “reversal of palatalization" (Michelena). Some forms (with final -tsi) show contamination with *e=aući ‘to go down’ (q.v.). Some dialects use the causative eraitsi ‘to milk’. For the initial of SAL saitsi, see the parallel development of *e=aući ‘to go down’ in Pyrenean dialects. Bsq *sesen ‘bull’ (q.v.) = Chamali, Bagwali zin ‘cow’, etc. are thought to be related to this verb (see NCED).
Proto-Basque: *e=aki-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: know (saber/savoir)
Bizkaian: jakin
Gipuzkoan: jakin
High Navarrese: jakin
Low Navarrese: jakin
Salazarese: xakin
Lapurdian: jakin
Aezkoan: xakin
Zuberoan: jakin
Roncalese: xakin
Proto-Basque: *e=alki
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to leave, go out 2 carry off, remove 3 take out 4 adapt, comply
Gipuzkoan: jalki 1, 3, 4
High Navarrese: jalki 1, 3, 4
Low Navarrese: ilkhi 1, 2, jalgi, jelgi 1
Salazarese: elki, ilki 1
Lapurdian: ilki, ilkhi 1, 2
Zuberoan: élkhi 1, 2, jálkhi 1
Roncalese: érkin 1, 2
Comments: It is also possible that -ki (-khi, -gi) is the common verbal suffix. A suffixless form jali 'to go out, leave' is attested in LAB-arc, BNV-Hazparren, BNV-Mugerre. This jali < *e=ali may be related to a different PEC verb such as *=Vmƛ̣V 'to go, to come'.
Proto-Basque: *e=an
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: eat
Bizkaian: jan, (Durango, Markina) jaan
Gipuzkoan: jan
High Navarrese: jan
Low Navarrese: jan
Salazarese: xan
Lapurdian: jan
Baztanese: jan
Aezkoan: xan
Zuberoan: jan
Roncalese: xan
Comments: Root is *-a[n]-, per Trask (EDB).
Proto-Basque: *e=ar̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to sit (down), place oneself 2 to set, put, place 3 to become, arrive, reach 4 to accomodate, adapt
Bizkaian: jarri 1
Gipuzkoan: jarri 1, 2
High Navarrese: jarri 1
Low Navarrese: (Baigorri) 4
Lapurdian: jarri 2, 3, (Ainhoa) 4
Aezkoan: xarri 1
Zuberoan: jarri 1
Comments: The Bzk forms jasarri / jesarri appear to be a blend of jarri and a separate root, *e=śeri (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *e=aśV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 lift, raise 2 carry, support, sustain 3 bear, endure 4 bear (fruit) 5 borrow
Bizkaian: jaso, jason 1, 2, (arc) jauso, joso 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: jaso 1, 2
High Navarrese: jaso 1, jasan 2, 3, 4, jasi 2
Low Navarrese: jasan 2, 3
Lapurdian: jaso 1, jasan 2, 3
Baztanese: jasan 2, 3
Zuberoan: jésan 5
Comments: According to Michelena ZBR 'to borrow' is a partial calque from Romance (cf. Catalan manllevar 'to borrow' < manum levare 'raise one's hand [to swear]').
Proto-Basque: *e=aući
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to go down, descend 2 to throw
Araban: jatsi 1
Bizkaian: (arc) jatsi 1
Gipuzkoan: jatsi, jatxi, jetsi, jetxi 1, 2
High Navarrese: jautsi, jatsi, jatxi, jetxi 1
Low Navarrese: jautsi, jeutsi, jeitsi 1, (Garazi) deutsi 1
Salazarese: sauntsi 1
Lapurdian: jautsi 1
Aezkoan: sautsi 1
Zuberoan: jaitsi, jatsi 1
Roncalese: xatxi 1
Comments: Cf. PNC *=ić̣wĔ 'to come; to return' (Lak =u=č̣a-n- 'to go down', etc.). Pyrenean forms (xatxi, sautsi, sauntsi) are by sibilant assimilation after the change of /j/ > /ž/ > /š/ (> /ś/).
Proto-Basque: *e=augi-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to come
Low Navarrese: jin, (arc, Baigorri) jaugin
Salazarese: xin
Lapurdian: jin, jen
Zuberoan: jin
Roncalese: xin
Comments: This verb, in the form jaugin (or inflections thereof) was used by early writers such as Etxepare (16th c.) and Pouvreau (17th c.). Per Azkue, the full form jaugin is now restricted to Baigorri. (See Trask 1997: 294.) Western dialects prefer *e=tor̄i 'to come' (q.v.).
Proto-Basque: *e=auśi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to fall
Bizkaian: jausi
Comments: Cf. PNC *=ŭśV 'to descend; to fall, be scattered'. Other Bsq dialects use *e=rori (q.v.) for 'to fall'.
Proto-Basque: *e=baki
Meaning: to cut
Bizkaian: ebagi
Gipuzkoan: ebaki
High Navarrese: ebaki
Low Navarrese: ebaki
Lapurdian: ebaki
Zuberoan: ebáki
Roncalese: ebaki
Comments: This verb is usually analyzed as *e=ba-ki (Michelena 1961: 231). Voicing assimilation in BZK. Cf. PY *pak- 'to cut'.
Proto-Basque: *e=ca-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: (itr.) to lie down, rest (tr.) to put down
Bizkaian: etzan, (Lekeitio) etzun, (arc) etxun
Gipuzkoan: etzan, etzin
High Navarrese: etzan, etzin
Low Navarrese: etzan
Lapurdian: etzan, (arc) etzain
Zuberoan: etzan
Roncalese: etzan, etzin
Proto-Basque: *e=će
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 house 2 cottage, cabin
Araban: etse 1
Bizkaian: etse 1, (Gernika, Mundaka, Txorierri) etze 1
Gipuzkoan: etxe 1, etxol 2
High Navarrese: itxe, etxe 1, itxola, etxol 2
Low Navarrese: etxe 1, etxola 2
Salazarese: etxe 1
Lapurdian: etxe 1, etxola 2
Baztanese: etxe 1
Aezkoan: etxe 1
Zuberoan: etxe 1, etxola 2
Roncalese: etse 1
Comments: Michelena (1961) regards etse = *eće as original, and etxe [eče] as a palatalized derivative. For the element -ol(a) see *oɫha.
Proto-Basque: *e=cuɫi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 turn over, upset 2 turn around, return 3 turn one's head 4 turn sour (milk) 5 convert (religion) 6 return, repay 7 back side, reverse
Bizkaian: itzuli 1, 2, 7
Gipuzkoan: itzuli 1
High Navarrese: itzuli 1, 2, 3, 4, 6
Low Navarrese: itzuli 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Salazarese: itzuli 1, 2, 5
Lapurdian: itzuli 1, 2, 5, 6
Baztanese: itzuli 6, 7
Aezkoan: itzuli 2
Zuberoan: ützüli 2, 5, 6
Roncalese: utzuli 2, 4, 6
Comments: Cf. PNC*=īrcVl 'to twirl, turn' (1780). For semantics, cf. *bihur̄-.
Proto-Basque: *e=da(-)n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: drink
Bizkaian: edan, (Eibar, Lekeitio) eran
Gipuzkoan: edan, (coastal) eran
High Navarrese: edan
Low Navarrese: edan
Salazarese: edan
Lapurdian: edan
Baztanese: edan
Aezkoan: edan
Zuberoan: edan
Roncalese: eran
Comments: With some sporadic changes of /d/ > /r/. Trask (EDB) cites root as *-da[n]-.
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