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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HāχuɫV / *HālχV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: long
Proto-Nakh: *=ʕāχ-(in)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iχ:Vl-
Proto-Tsezian: *=ɨχ:ɔlV-
Proto-Lak: halχ:a-
Proto-Dargwa: *χ:ʷala-
Proto-Lezghian: *[hI]alχä-
Proto-Khinalug: wiχä
Proto-West Caucasian: *ŁʷA
Notes: For the phonetic development in PWC cf. *χ_ɦwĕje 'dog' (in this case the lateralisation in PWC may also have been favoured by the lateral resonant in the root).

    The stem *HālχV (reflected in PN, Lak., PL and Khin. /with a former class prefix w-/) is a secondary development < *HāχɫV < *HāχuɫV. Several morphological notes: the stem is usually accompanied by class prefixes in the Western area (Nakh, Andian, Tsezian) but is prefixless in Eastern Daghestan (Lak., Darg., Lezghian). By now it is hard to judge which situation is original; however, it seems probable that the initial syllable *Hā- is historically a prefix, and that we should reconstruct the most archaic form as *χuɫV (cf. the rather frequent reflex of this stem in different areas: in Av. /χ:alá-ta-/, in PD /*χ:ʷala-/, in some Lezg. languages/Rut. χuläχ-dɨ, Tsakh. χɨli-na/. Cf. also Hurr. χel(-)di 'lofty, highborn' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 54-55).

    See Абдоков 1983, 147.


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