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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=Vmc̣_́Vr
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to stand, stand up
Proto-Nakh: *-ātt-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=ič̣:- /*ħi(r)č̣:-
Proto-Tsezian: *=arč- / *=eč-
Proto-Lak: =iza-n
Proto-Dargwa: *=ic:Vr-/=ilc:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔec:ʷär-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The root vowel is hard to reconstruct (because of complicated and rather unclear Ablaut patterns). The medial nasal resonant has caused the change *-mć̣- > *-tt- in PN and the deglottalisation in Lak., PL and PD; its labial character can be reconstructed on basis of the PL labialisation (although the resonant itself was regularly dropped).

    [The root is used in several languages in a compound meaning 'stirrup', lit. 'foot'+'stand (caus.)' or '(foot)-prop'+'stand', i.e. 'a place for putting feet on'. Cf. Av. ħoṭo-č̣:el (Chad. with assimilation and distortion ħonƛ̣lóč̣), Lak. č:armuzi < *č:an-b-uzi, Darg. Chir. ṭuIr-birc:an, Arch. moʎ:ol-orc:i. The Avar word, sometimes with severe distortions, was borrowed into many EC languages: Akhv. ħoṭoč̣:a, Cham., Inkh., Tsez., Gin. ħoṭoč̣el, Cham. Gig. ħeṭeč̣ (cf. an Avar dialectal variant ħeṭeč̣:el), Gunz. ħonṭoč̣al, Bezht. Tlad. haƛso, Khosh. hacijo.]


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