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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-ɔL
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Tsezi: joʎ
Ginukh: goʎa
Khvarshi: goʎe
Inkhokvari: goli
Bezhta: gäʎi (Khosh.)
Gunzib: li / lo
Comments: The verb occurs either with a preverb (*g-ɔL) or without it (in this case sometimes with initial reduction: Gunz. li / lo). In Bezhta the Khosh. form (gäʎi) is regular; other dialects reveal irregular transformations (Bezht. proper gej, Tlad. gel).

    The same root with Ablaut is used in PGB with the meaning 'to finish': PGB *=oL- > Bezht. Tlad. =oʎ-, Gunz. =ol-. The original meaning of the verb had been 'to lie, to (be) put' - as seen both from the external evidence and from the old derived noun *r-ɨLǝ A 'sheath, scabbard': PTsKh *Rɨ̃Lǝ ( < *RɨLǝ-n) > Tsez. reʎo / reʎi, Inkh. nɨno; PGB *rɨLǝ (Bezht. iʎo, Khosh., Tlad. riʎo, Gunz. rɨlǝ).


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